Difference between revisions of "Interview Archive:King in the Wilderness/Documentary"

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(Created page with "__NOTOC__ === 00:00:59 === ==== Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON: ==== <evlplayer id="kitw000059" w="800" service="youtube"></evlplayer> {{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.yo...")
 
 
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I came over in the morning to pick Martin up to drive him to the airport to go to Memphis. The children saw him going to the airport all the time. But this day, the boys blocked the door and said “Daddy, don’t leave.” And he said, “Oh I’ll be right back. I’m just going down to Memphis! I’ll be back.”
 
I came over in the morning to pick Martin up to drive him to the airport to go to Memphis. The children saw him going to the airport all the time. But this day, the boys blocked the door and said “Daddy, don’t leave.” And he said, “Oh I’ll be right back. I’m just going down to Memphis! I’ll be back.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1248784 airport]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1248784 airport]</span>
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Then they ran ahead of him and blocked the stairs, and said, “Daddy, don’t leave us.” And he said, “Listen, I’m coming right back. I’m just gonna go down there for a march. You know I explained why I’m going. These people have been mistreated in Memphis and I’m going to do something about it. That’s my work and you know that.”
 
Then they ran ahead of him and blocked the stairs, and said, “Daddy, don’t leave us.” And he said, “Listen, I’m coming right back. I’m just gonna go down there for a march. You know I explained why I’m going. These people have been mistreated in Memphis and I’m going to do something about it. That’s my work and you know that.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6815871 Memphis Sanitation Strike]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6815871 Memphis Sanitation Strike]</span>
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They ran over to my car, and then they jumped on the hood of the car, pleading again through the window, “Daddy, please don’t go. Daddy, please don’t leave us. Daddy, please!”
 
They ran over to my car, and then they jumped on the hood of the car, pleading again through the window, “Daddy, please don’t go. Daddy, please don’t leave us. Daddy, please!”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7569 child]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7569 child]</span>
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(music sound up) Such pleading.
 
(music sound up) Such pleading.
  
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We backed out of the driveway and got on the way. And he said, “What in the world happened to these kids? They must be trying to tell me that they’re missing me more. And when I come back, I’ve gotta change my habits. I can’t go through this.”
 
We backed out of the driveway and got on the way. And he said, “What in the world happened to these kids? They must be trying to tell me that they’re missing me more. And when I come back, I’ve gotta change my habits. I can’t go through this.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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I watched the transformation take place from the man that I met in the first instance to the man he became in the end. With all of his experience, he really was not quite ready for the human heart to reveal as much villainy. What he saw was more hate than he saw resolve.
 
I watched the transformation take place from the man that I met in the first instance to the man he became in the end. With all of his experience, he really was not quite ready for the human heart to reveal as much villainy. What he saw was more hate than he saw resolve.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q160232 hatred]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q160232 hatred]</span>
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We were trying to redeem the soul of America from the triple evils of racism, war, and poverty, and Martin had become far more exposed to enemies by taking on both civil rights and the war issue.
 
We were trying to redeem the soul of America from the triple evils of racism, war, and poverty, and Martin had become far more exposed to enemies by taking on both civil rights and the war issue.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q289891 enemy]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q289891 enemy]</span>
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I couldn’t imagine the pressure that was on him—nobody could. None of us could imagine that. It was just too overwhelming.
 
I couldn’t imagine the pressure that was on him—nobody could. None of us could imagine that. It was just too overwhelming.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131725 Joan Baez]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1527480 stressor]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131725 Joan Baez]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1527480 stressor]</span>
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The most difficult time of his life was the 18 months before his assassination. Very difficult time.
 
The most difficult time of his life was the 18 months before his assassination. Very difficult time.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1527480 stressor]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1527480 stressor]</span>
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He was disappointed, and he wondered whether or not he could do any more than he’d done.
 
He was disappointed, and he wondered whether or not he could do any more than he’d done.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q621206 disappointment]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q621206 disappointment]</span>
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It had bothered him deeply that the nation had turned against him and I always tell people he died of a broken heart.
 
It had bothered him deeply that the nation had turned against him and I always tell people he died of a broken heart.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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I think he worried about dying before he had accomplished enough. It’s as though he knew that he was not going to be here for the rest of the struggle.
 
I think he worried about dying before he had accomplished enough. It’s as though he knew that he was not going to be here for the rest of the struggle.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span>
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The movement ceased to be political for him—it was spiritual.
 
The movement ceased to be political for him—it was spiritual.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q168796 spirituality]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q168796 spirituality]</span>
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{{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eQXD_44Kso&start=285&end=290&autoplay=1|player=kitw000445|urlargs=autoplay=true}}&nbsp;
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He said, ‘We have wondered in the wilderness of separate but equal, and we’re about to move into the promised land of creative integration, and I don’t know whether I’ll get there, but my people will get to the promised land.
 
He said, ‘We have wondered in the wilderness of separate but equal, and we’re about to move into the promised land of creative integration, and I don’t know whether I’ll get there, but my people will get to the promised land.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5967210 I've Been to the Mountaintop]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5967210 I've Been to the Mountaintop]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jones#00:24:45 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jones#00:24:45" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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I’m 86, and you know, there’s an African proverb that says, “If the surviving lions don’t tell their stories, the hunters will get all the credit.”
 
I’m 86, and you know, there’s an African proverb that says, “If the surviving lions don’t tell their stories, the hunters will get all the credit.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16333391 African proverbs]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16333391 African proverbs]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/clayton#02:14:36 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="clayton#02:14:36" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
I tell the story of Martin Luther King and Coretta King as I knew it. I lived it. I value all of what they gave me now that I can remember.
 
I tell the story of Martin Luther King and Coretta King as I knew it. I lived it. I value all of what they gave me now that I can remember.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span>
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I’m not just telling stories. I’m not making a speech. I’m telling you what happened.
 
I’m not just telling stories. I’m not making a speech. I’m telling you what happened.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span>
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We were all caught off guard when we saw the rebellions begin. They started in Harlem and then Philadelphia in 1964, and then Watts in 1965, which was the most massive.
 
We were all caught off guard when we saw the rebellions begin. They started in Harlem and then Philadelphia in 1964, and then Watts in 1965, which was the most massive.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q58446297 The sixties]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124757 riot]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q189074 Harlem]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1345 Philadelphia]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q377682 Watts riots]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q58446297 The sixties]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124757 riot]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q189074 Harlem]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1345 Philadelphia]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q377682 Watts riots]</span>
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Martin called me early in the morning saying that, “There’s a riot in Watts. We’ve gotta go to Los Angeles.”
 
Martin called me early in the morning saying that, “There’s a riot in Watts. We’ve gotta go to Los Angeles.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q377682 Watts riots]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q377682 Watts riots]</span>
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Dr. King once said that, “The riot became the language of the unheard.”
 
Dr. King once said that, “The riot became the language of the unheard.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124757 riot]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124757 riot]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lewis#00:26:41 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lewis#00:26:41" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
Nonviolent is more than a tactic. It is one of those immutable principles that you cannot deviate from if you’re going to be able to redeem the soul of America.
 
Nonviolent is more than a tactic. It is one of those immutable principles that you cannot deviate from if you’re going to be able to redeem the soul of America.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
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The issues in Watts, and in the North, were far more complex than black and white, as they had been in the South. Q959635 Q1687279 [the north] Q49042 He was dealing with racism, but he was dealing with racism that was complicated by unemployment and unprepared migrants moving from the South to the North. And I realized we were in a different movement.
 
The issues in Watts, and in the North, were far more complex than black and white, as they had been in the South. Q959635 Q1687279 [the north] Q49042 He was dealing with racism, but he was dealing with racism that was complicated by unemployment and unprepared migrants moving from the South to the North. And I realized we were in a different movement.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8461 racism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q41171 unemployment]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1506365 Great Migration]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8461 racism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q41171 unemployment]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1506365 Great Migration]</span>
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What we saw it as… a lot of people who were suffering from the same kind of poverty, the same kind of absence of employment opportunities, and police brutality were in the urban areas, and they responded with whatever weapons they could find.
 
What we saw it as… a lot of people who were suffering from the same kind of poverty, the same kind of absence of employment opportunities, and police brutality were in the urban areas, and they responded with whatever weapons they could find.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1996993 police brutality]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1996993 police brutality]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/califano#00:19:37 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="califano#00:19:37" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
The president during the riots was just depressed. About a week before, Johnson had signed the Voting Rights Act— tells me, “this is the most important piece of legislation I’ll pass. Even more important than the ’64 Civil Rights Act.”
 
The president during the riots was just depressed. About a week before, Johnson had signed the Voting Rights Act— tells me, “this is the most important piece of legislation I’ll pass. Even more important than the ’64 Civil Rights Act.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1704485 Wallace Ford]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1608064 Voting Rights Act of 1965]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q191600 civil and political rights]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1704485 Wallace Ford]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1608064 Voting Rights Act of 1965]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q191600 civil and political rights]</span>
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He’s virtually carried out of the room on shoulders, and then, we start the massive rioting in Watts. So he tells me, “Call Dr. King.”
 
He’s virtually carried out of the room on shoulders, and then, we start the massive rioting in Watts. So he tells me, “Call Dr. King.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q377682 Watts riots]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q377682 Watts riots]</span>
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All of this was happening about the same time that the war in Vietnam heated up, and the President was in the midst of a very heavy burden both with the war and domestically.
 
All of this was happening about the same time that the war in Vietnam heated up, and the President was in the midst of a very heavy burden both with the war and domestically.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span>
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Dr. King made the decision in ’65 that he had to be against the war.
 
Dr. King made the decision in ’65 that he had to be against the war.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2650 1965]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2650 1965]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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We went to meet with Ambassador Goldberg at the United Nations. And Goldberg pretty much agreed with us that the war in Vietnam was not in anybody’s interest. But the press said that he had no business having an opinion about foreign affairs. He was a civil rights leader, see. And it hurt him.
 
We went to meet with Ambassador Goldberg at the United Nations. And Goldberg pretty much agreed with us that the war in Vietnam was not in anybody’s interest. But the press said that he had no business having an opinion about foreign affairs. He was a civil rights leader, see. And it hurt him.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q709513 Arthur Goldberg]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q794691 anti-war movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q709513 Arthur Goldberg]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q794691 anti-war movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
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He said to me, he said “Vivian, you don’t think I know what I’m talking about do you?” But he knew how he felt about the war.
 
He said to me, he said “Vivian, you don’t think I know what I’m talking about do you?” But he knew how he felt about the war.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
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Also, I think Martin knew that he had to be a part of the North sooner or later.
 
Also, I think Martin knew that he had to be a part of the North sooner or later.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span>
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I opposed SCLC moving North because we weren’t finished in the South. We needed to continue political education.
 
I opposed SCLC moving North because we weren’t finished in the South. We needed to continue political education.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5271535 Diane Nash]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5271535 Diane Nash]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
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And we needed to work on building an economic base.
 
And we needed to work on building an economic base.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5271535 Diane Nash]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8134 economics]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5271535 Diane Nash]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8134 economics]</span>
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Martin could sit there for an hour, listen to us argue about, “no—let’s go here. Let’s go there. Let’s teach this, let’s d—whatever.”
 
Martin could sit there for an hour, listen to us argue about, “no—let’s go here. Let’s go there. Let’s teach this, let’s d—whatever.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6646450 Listening]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6646450 Listening]</span>
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But he would teach a lot by asking questions. Then a sudden quiet would come over the room because he wanted to make people think about what they wanted. Martin could be very quiet and have all the power in the room.
 
But he would teach a lot by asking questions. Then a sudden quiet would come over the room because he wanted to make people think about what they wanted. Martin could be very quiet and have all the power in the room.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q484275 leadership]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q484275 leadership]</span>
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Martin had decided that we had to prove that nonviolence was relevant in the North. That we had to find a way to get into these northern cities before the riots occurred. And so, we went North, to Chicago. I do not know that everything that Martin said or did he was quite prepared for. He had felt that in many ways, dealing with the South was a more predictable outcome, because in the North, the racial hypocrisy was very subverted.
 
Martin had decided that we had to prove that nonviolence was relevant in the North. That we had to find a way to get into these northern cities before the riots occurred. And so, we went North, to Chicago. I do not know that everything that Martin said or did he was quite prepared for. He had felt that in many ways, dealing with the South was a more predictable outcome, because in the North, the racial hypocrisy was very subverted.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q49042 Southern United States]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q201650 hypocrisy]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q49042 Southern United States]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q201650 hypocrisy]</span>
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It gave the appearance of being not like the South; the South was the center of all evil, and that the North was a place of the higher experience. And Dr. King said, “No, that’s not the case.”
 
It gave the appearance of being not like the South; the South was the center of all evil, and that the North was a place of the higher experience. And Dr. King said, “No, that’s not the case.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q49042 Southern United States]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q49042 Southern United States]</span>
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That first night was a very cold night, and I got really worried that there weren’t gonna be enough blankets, so we went and got the blankets, and went over to see Dr. King in his apartment. And, as we were sitting there, the doorbell rang, and there was a young man there. The first thing he said when he came in the door was, “Are you really Martin Luther King?”
 
That first night was a very cold night, and I got really worried that there weren’t gonna be enough blankets, so we went and got the blankets, and went over to see Dr. King in his apartment. And, as we were sitting there, the doorbell rang, and there was a young man there. The first thing he said when he came in the door was, “Are you really Martin Luther King?”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q270952 cold]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q270952 cold]</span>
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They had a very lovely conversation with Dr. King really saying, “We want you to join the movement.” Pretty soon later, there was another knock on the door, and there was like a whole train of them going down the stairs. And those young men came back a number of times to see Dr. King.
 
They had a very lovely conversation with Dr. King really saying, “We want you to join the movement.” Pretty soon later, there was another knock on the door, and there was like a whole train of them going down the stairs. And those young men came back a number of times to see Dr. King.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1986893 neighbor]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1986893 neighbor]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span>
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People in the community, they would just hang around waiting for him to come downstairs, you know, so they could see him. But he would invite them in, sit down and talk to people. They didn’t think he was the kind of person he could talk to and it made them feel, well honestly, that they were worthwhile as well.
 
People in the community, they would just hang around waiting for him to come downstairs, you know, so they could see him. But he would invite them in, sit down and talk to people. They didn’t think he was the kind of person he could talk to and it made them feel, well honestly, that they were worthwhile as well.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q578221 Cicero]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1986893 neighbor]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q52943 conversation]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q578221 Cicero]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1986893 neighbor]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q52943 conversation]</span>
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Martin understood that if you ran with folk, you could organize folk. Remember, we’ve spent all of our lives being hated in one form or the other. But when we see somebody who really cares for people—people, period—right, that person is worth knowing.
 
Martin understood that if you ran with folk, you could organize folk. Remember, we’ve spent all of our lives being hated in one form or the other. But when we see somebody who really cares for people—people, period—right, that person is worth knowing.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25866 community organizing]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25866 community organizing]</span>
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The first week we moved in, temperature dropped to about sixteen degrees below zero. And people came to us to complain that they had no heat. And, to find babies wrapped in newspaper, we had to start—fire the furnaces. So we got all the money we could and we got enough coal and to get all of the furnaces to work.
 
The first week we moved in, temperature dropped to about sixteen degrees below zero. And people came to us to complain that they had no heat. And, to find babies wrapped in newspaper, we had to start—fire the furnaces. So we got all the money we could and we got enough coal and to get all of the furnaces to work.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q270952 cold]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1709184 heating furnace]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q270952 cold]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1709184 heating furnace]</span>
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We called the movement in Chicago the movement to end slums. And It plunged us into several issues. One was the area of poor housing. The other was the area of quality education, and also unemployment.
 
We called the movement in Chicago the movement to end slums. And It plunged us into several issues. One was the area of poor housing. The other was the area of quality education, and also unemployment.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2963310 Chicago Freedom Movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2963310 Chicago Freedom Movement]</span>
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So first we ran into stiff black resistance. We had never met that in Montgomery or Birmingham or Selma before, that was different.
 
So first we ran into stiff black resistance. We had never met that in Montgomery or Birmingham or Selma before, that was different.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q138796 resistance movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q138796 resistance movement]</span>
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A lot of the ministers were part of the patronage system. Mayor Daley’s patronage system was one where people’s jobs were handed out based on the number of votes that they could produce. They called it the Daley Machine.
 
A lot of the ministers were part of the patronage system. Mayor Daley’s patronage system was one where people’s jobs were handed out based on the number of votes that they could produce. They called it the Daley Machine.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q295267 Richard J. Daley]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3218690 Political machine]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q295267 Richard J. Daley]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3218690 Political machine]</span>
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Martin had anxiety, because, as he put it, “We don’t want to flunk. (laughs) We don’t want to fail in our projects.”
 
Martin had anxiety, because, as he put it, “We don’t want to flunk. (laughs) We don’t want to fail in our projects.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5271535 Diane Nash]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q154430 anxiety]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5271535 Diane Nash]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q154430 anxiety]</span>
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We met regularly with Mayor Daley, and we disagreed, because we were challenging the way Chicago was structured.
 
We met regularly with Mayor Daley, and we disagreed, because we were challenging the way Chicago was structured.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q295267 Richard J. Daley]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q295267 Richard J. Daley]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span>
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At the same time, we were still being pulled back to the South, and James Meredith decided to have a march in Mississippi.
 
At the same time, we were still being pulled back to the South, and James Meredith decided to have a march in Mississippi.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5040 James Meredith]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5040 James Meredith]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span>
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Mississippi wanted black folk to leave. They didn’t want them to be there to vote. They were trying to starve them out. They were pushing people off the land and wanted them to go North. And the violence continued.
 
Mississippi wanted black folk to leave. They didn’t want them to be there to vote. They were trying to starve them out. They were pushing people off the land and wanted them to go North. And the violence continued.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1494 Mississippi]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q405566 Voting rights in the United States]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1494 Mississippi]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q405566 Voting rights in the United States]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span>
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James Meredith’s march was a march against fear. We had seen people in Mississippi getting killed for trying to register to vote because they didn’t want them to have power. So he was trying to empower African Americans to not be fearful of all the threats.
 
James Meredith’s march was a march against fear. We had seen people in Mississippi getting killed for trying to register to vote because they didn’t want them to have power. So he was trying to empower African Americans to not be fearful of all the threats.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5040 James Meredith]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5040 James Meredith]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span>
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At that time, me and Stokely Carmichael were officers of SNCC, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. And someone came along and told us that James Meredith had been shot.
 
At that time, me and Stokely Carmichael were officers of SNCC, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. And someone came along and told us that James Meredith had been shot.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span>
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The Meredith March wasn’t on anybody’s agenda. He didn’t consult with anybody. But with the shooting of Meredith, Dr. King and civil rights leaders rallied around that.
 
The Meredith March wasn’t on anybody’s agenda. He didn’t consult with anybody. But with the shooting of Meredith, Dr. King and civil rights leaders rallied around that.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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Martin felt we could not ignore what was happening in Mississippi. So, we had to divide what we were doing in, in Chicago, and so we had a Mississippi March and a Chicago Movement.
 
Martin felt we could not ignore what was happening in Mississippi. So, we had to divide what we were doing in, in Chicago, and so we had a Mississippi March and a Chicago Movement.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2963310 Chicago Freedom Movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2963310 Chicago Freedom Movement]</span>
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In SNCC, we saw a changing movement tactically.
 
In SNCC, we saw a changing movement tactically.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span>
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Our focus was on empowering communities.
 
Our focus was on empowering communities.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q177634 community]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q177634 community]</span>
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What they were basically saying is that black people needed to appreciate black and it wasn’t a color, it was a culture. Now, when I was growing up, to call a person of color black was considered derogatory. Those were fighting words. But, there was a term that was used as well during that period: “white power.”
 
What they were basically saying is that black people needed to appreciate black and it wasn’t a color, it was a culture. Now, when I was growing up, to call a person of color black was considered derogatory. Those were fighting words. But, there was a term that was used as well during that period: “white power.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span>
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Stokely Carmichael gets control of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and he purges the organization of all white people.
 
Stokely Carmichael gets control of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and he purges the organization of all white people.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span>
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He said, “You go back and work in your community. We want to have total control. It rippled throughout the movement.
 
He said, “You go back and work in your community. We want to have total control. It rippled throughout the movement.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span>
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I will never forget Dr. King’s face when Black Power first began to emerge. He looked like the most stricken man.
 
I will never forget Dr. King’s face when Black Power first began to emerge. He looked like the most stricken man.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span>
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We were taught that there were good people and bad people and we never viewed this as black against white.
 
We were taught that there were good people and bad people and we never viewed this as black against white.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q49085 African Americans]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q235155 White people]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q49085 African Americans]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q235155 White people]</span>
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We’re taught that racism was a sickness and you don’t get mad with sick people. They just don’t know any better. They’d been taught that they are better than you.
 
We’re taught that racism was a sickness and you don’t get mad with sick people. They just don’t know any better. They’d been taught that they are better than you.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8461 racism]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8461 racism]</span>
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Martin was very uncomfortable, but he knows that he has to be there to support the courage of Stokely Carmichael without supporting the message, or the form of the message.
 
Martin was very uncomfortable, but he knows that he has to be there to support the courage of Stokely Carmichael without supporting the message, or the form of the message.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span>
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Dr. King was not opposed to power, but to elevate so-called Black Power over white power would break that which he was seeking to build—the coalition among white and black people.
 
Dr. King was not opposed to power, but to elevate so-called Black Power over white power would break that which he was seeking to build—the coalition among white and black people.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124964 coalition]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124964 coalition]</span>
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Some of the people on the march were intimidated by the whole effort of Black Power.
 
Some of the people on the march were intimidated by the whole effort of Black Power.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16932373 March Against Fear]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span>
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As long as we were talking about non-violence and all that kind of thing, everybody felt comfortable.
 
As long as we were talking about non-violence and all that kind of thing, everybody felt comfortable.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
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Anytime when we talk about black people having power the assumption is that black people want to be violent against white people.
 
Anytime when we talk about black people having power the assumption is that black people want to be violent against white people.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q49085 African Americans]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25107 power]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q49085 African Americans]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25107 power]</span>
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When Stokely became chairman of SNCC, he had a different approach.
 
When Stokely became chairman of SNCC, he had a different approach.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span>
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He believed in self-defense.
 
He believed in self-defense.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30046560 philosophical viewpoint]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30046560 philosophical viewpoint]</span>
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Martin was an amazingly tolerant, understanding father-figure for all of us. He understood Stokely’s frustrations, and he never took it personally.
 
Martin was an amazingly tolerant, understanding father-figure for all of us. He understood Stokely’s frustrations, and he never took it personally.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q484275 leadership]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q484275 leadership]</span>
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I think Dr. King never forgot that we were all on the same side. He didn’t have any enemies.
 
I think Dr. King never forgot that we were all on the same side. He didn’t have any enemies.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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What I remember was the listening, the patience. He was always there to say, “I don’t go there, but I want to really understand why you go there.” But that was the first real breach in the nonviolence commitment that many of us had grown to accept.
 
What I remember was the listening, the patience. He was always there to say, “I don’t go there, but I want to really understand why you go there.” But that was the first real breach in the nonviolence commitment that many of us had grown to accept.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6646450 Listening]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15304496 patience]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6646450 Listening]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15304496 patience]</span>
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I had not, before meeting Dr. King, ever taken the option of violence off the table. We are a minority living in the belly of the beast.
 
I had not, before meeting Dr. King, ever taken the option of violence off the table. We are a minority living in the belly of the beast.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/belafonte#02:13:14 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="belafonte#02:13:14" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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When Dr. King stepped in, he methodically would look at violence and challenge those who would seek the gun as the solution, because morally, you cannot defeat the enemy by becoming the enemy.
 
When Dr. King stepped in, he methodically would look at violence and challenge those who would seek the gun as the solution, because morally, you cannot defeat the enemy by becoming the enemy.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1194773 projectile weapon]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1194773 projectile weapon]</span>
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But Stokely really believed that in the long run, the gun was gonna have to be the answer.
 
But Stokely really believed that in the long run, the gun was gonna have to be the answer.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span>
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I accused Stokely of being just an angry, frustrated young man.
 
I accused Stokely of being just an angry, frustrated young man.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span>
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Anger eats away at your own soul, and it hurts you. Everybody has a right to be angry. Everybody has a right to be frustrated. But, if you give in to your anger and your frustrations, you’re gonna lose.
 
Anger eats away at your own soul, and it hurts you. Everybody has a right to be angry. Everybody has a right to be frustrated. But, if you give in to your anger and your frustrations, you’re gonna lose.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q79871 anger]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q79871 anger]</span>
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That summer of ’66 did feel like a very turbulent time.
 
That summer of ’66 did feel like a very turbulent time.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2649 1966]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2963310 Chicago Freedom Movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2649 1966]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2963310 Chicago Freedom Movement]</span>
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There was some question about whether it was appropriate for white people to stay working with the movement. And I remember one of my black friends saying to me, “We need to know we can do this ourselves.” And in the middle of all that, was the rising of the Vietnam War.
 
There was some question about whether it was appropriate for white people to stay working with the movement. And I remember one of my black friends saying to me, “We need to know we can do this ourselves.” And in the middle of all that, was the rising of the Vietnam War.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/finley#01:10:13 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="finley#01:10:13" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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Many of the staff who were very strongly opposed to the war were trying to get Dr. King to speak out against it.
 
Many of the staff who were very strongly opposed to the war were trying to get Dr. King to speak out against it.
  
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/young#00:50:45 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="young#00:50:45" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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Martin was now being pulled back in to the war issue by the student left and so you had almost three things coming together in Chicago, pulling the same leadership in different directions.
 
Martin was now being pulled back in to the war issue by the student left and so you had almost three things coming together in Chicago, pulling the same leadership in different directions.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span>
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Mayor Daley was very upset about what was going on here and he was in touch with Lyndon Johnson and said, “Get this Martin Luther King off my back.”
 
Mayor Daley was very upset about what was going on here and he was in touch with Lyndon Johnson and said, “Get this Martin Luther King off my back.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q295267 Richard J. Daley]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q295267 Richard J. Daley]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span>
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The area that the movement insisted on getting into was open housing.
 
The area that the movement insisted on getting into was open housing.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2963310 Chicago Freedom Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1247867 housing]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2963310 Chicago Freedom Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1247867 housing]</span>
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{{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eQXD_44Kso&start=1960&end=1965&autoplay=1|player=kitw003240|urlargs=autoplay=true}}&nbsp;
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Chicago is probably the most segregated city I know. It’s not only segregated black and white, but the Irish, the Italians, the Polish, the Jewish community. Almost everybody lives in its own enclave in Chicago.
 
Chicago is probably the most segregated city I know. It’s not only segregated black and white, but the Irish, the Italians, the Polish, the Jewish community. Almost everybody lives in its own enclave in Chicago.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2652357 Racial segregation in the United States]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2652357 Racial segregation in the United States]</span>
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And so we started marching into those ethnic neighborhoods, and we were challenging Chicago simply by marching.
 
And so we started marching into those ethnic neighborhoods, and we were challenging Chicago simply by marching.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2652357 Racial segregation in the United States]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q123705 neighborhood]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15631336 protest march]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2652357 Racial segregation in the United States]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q123705 neighborhood]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15631336 protest march]</span>
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Our marches were to the real estate offices, because the real estate agents controlled the movement of people. They’re the ones who were managing this discrimination.
 
Our marches were to the real estate offices, because the real estate agents controlled the movement of people. They’re the ones who were managing this discrimination.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q519076 real estate broker]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1247867 housing]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q169207 discrimination]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q519076 real estate broker]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1247867 housing]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q169207 discrimination]</span>
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I remember marching through Gage Park, and the difference in the South… you had maybe a couple hundred, at most, of the riff raff of the Klan. (sound of small blast) But, in Chicago it was ten thousand. I mean everybody came out.
 
I remember marching through Gage Park, and the difference in the South… you had maybe a couple hundred, at most, of the riff raff of the Klan. (sound of small blast) But, in Chicago it was ten thousand. I mean everybody came out.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q47131 Ku Klux Klan]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q47131 Ku Klux Klan]</span>
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I remember coming on those marches, prepared for anything.
 
I remember coming on those marches, prepared for anything.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15631336 protest march]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15631336 protest march]</span>
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But it was well beyond what we anticipated.
 
But it was well beyond what we anticipated.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15631336 protest march]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15631336 protest march]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span>
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Nonviolence had the power to pull the worst fever out of them and show our moral strength. They had the stick, we had the bible.
 
Nonviolence had the power to pull the worst fever out of them and show our moral strength. They had the stick, we had the bible.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
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I remember this one young lady came up to Dr. King just spitting in his face, calling him all kinds of names. And he said, “You know, you’re much too beautiful to be so mean.”
 
I remember this one young lady came up to Dr. King just spitting in his face, calling him all kinds of names. And he said, “You know, you’re much too beautiful to be so mean.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q740540 Spitting]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q740540 Spitting]</span>
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And, when we came back through there, she came out of the crowd again and went up to him and shook his hand and apologized and said, “I’m sorry. (chuckles) I never should have been so rude.”
 
And, when we came back through there, she came out of the crowd again and went up to him and shook his hand and apologized and said, “I’m sorry. (chuckles) I never should have been so rude.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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The nonviolent approach is radical. Radical enough to believe that under the worst conditions, there’s hope.
 
The nonviolent approach is radical. Radical enough to believe that under the worst conditions, there’s hope.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q190507 hope]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q190507 hope]</span>
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It’s radical enough to believe that people who display some of the most insensitive kind of attitudes can be changed. Its ultimate goal is to win your opponents over.
 
It’s radical enough to believe that people who display some of the most insensitive kind of attitudes can be changed. Its ultimate goal is to win your opponents over.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span>
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So, you had to psychologically disarm them. You confront your opponent, and you look at your opponent in the eyes so that they will not see you as a target, but as a human being. So, you are forcing your humanity on them.
 
So, you had to psychologically disarm them. You confront your opponent, and you look at your opponent in the eyes so that they will not see you as a target, but as a human being. So, you are forcing your humanity on them.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q185451 strategy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5 human]</span>
 
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Mayor Daley was very distressed and he really wanted it to end. So, one of the religious groups in Chicago decided to call a meeting to try to come to some agreement that would stop the marches.
 
Mayor Daley was very distressed and he really wanted it to end. So, one of the religious groups in Chicago decided to call a meeting to try to come to some agreement that would stop the marches.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q295267 Richard J. Daley]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q13414953 religious denomination]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q273120 protest]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q295267 Richard J. Daley]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q13414953 religious denomination]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q273120 protest]</span>
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The staff was really disappointed. We did not get a definitive statement from them that discrimination in housing will end in Chicago. But one of the things that Andrew Young said was: “Sometimes you only win half a loaf and then you have to keep pushing for the rest of it.” The extent that there were successes that came later, Dr. King didn’t get to see that.
 
The staff was really disappointed. We did not get a definitive statement from them that discrimination in housing will end in Chicago. But one of the things that Andrew Young said was: “Sometimes you only win half a loaf and then you have to keep pushing for the rest of it.” The extent that there were successes that came later, Dr. King didn’t get to see that.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q578221 Cicero]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1247867 housing]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q169207 discrimination]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q578221 Cicero]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1247867 housing]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q169207 discrimination]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span>
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Up to the moment of his death, I think that Dr. King referred to the experiences in Chicago more regularly than any other experience. I think Chicago was a huge awakening for him. He saw that the movement now was reflective more of the truth of what America was about than just what we’d experienced in the south.
 
Up to the moment of his death, I think that Dr. King referred to the experiences in Chicago more regularly than any other experience. I think Chicago was a huge awakening for him. He saw that the movement now was reflective more of the truth of what America was about than just what we’d experienced in the south.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30 United States of America]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30 United States of America]</span>
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And Martin said to me, “Clarence, I’ve seen some hate filled eyes and mouths in Mississippi and Alabama.”
 
And Martin said to me, “Clarence, I’ve seen some hate filled eyes and mouths in Mississippi and Alabama.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1494 Mississippi]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q173 Alabama]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1494 Mississippi]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q173 Alabama]</span>
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He said, “But the hate I saw in Illinois was equal or greater than any of the hate I’ve seen in Mississippi.” He was really shaken.
 
He said, “But the hate I saw in Illinois was equal or greater than any of the hate I’ve seen in Mississippi.” He was really shaken.
 
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  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q160232 hatred]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1494 Mississippi]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q173 Alabama]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1204 Illinois]</span>
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When we left Chicago, I remember his…battles with conscience. He was very depressed that he hadn’t been more forceful in his non-violence.
 
When we left Chicago, I remember his…battles with conscience. He was very depressed that he hadn’t been more forceful in his non-violence.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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I said “wait a minute,” y’know, “you’re doing better than anybody else is doing, there’s no reason for you to feel guilty.” But he always felt he was not doing enough.
 
I said “wait a minute,” y’know, “you’re doing better than anybody else is doing, there’s no reason for you to feel guilty.” But he always felt he was not doing enough.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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As much as he did, he always blamed himself for not doing enough. He was a kind of workaholic where he was never content. He was driven by a kind of a need for perfection. And he was always feeling that he wasn’t doing his best.
 
As much as he did, he always blamed himself for not doing enough. He was a kind of workaholic where he was never content. He was driven by a kind of a need for perfection. And he was always feeling that he wasn’t doing his best.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q64118 Le Bellay-en-Vexin]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q64118 Le Bellay-en-Vexin]</span>
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I think because of his feeling that somehow he wasn’t good enough to be the leader. Those were periods when he was really just physically exhausted.
 
I think because of his feeling that somehow he wasn’t good enough to be the leader. Those were periods when he was really just physically exhausted.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q64118 Le Bellay-en-Vexin]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q484275 leadership]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q64118 Le Bellay-en-Vexin]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q484275 leadership]</span>
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Dr. King came to New York with great regularity, and whenever he was here on quiet time, he often stayed at our home. And we also made sure that his space was filled with the things that brought him pleasure, including his favorite drink, Bristol Cream Sherry.
 
Dr. King came to New York with great regularity, and whenever he was here on quiet time, he often stayed at our home. And we also made sure that his space was filled with the things that brought him pleasure, including his favorite drink, Bristol Cream Sherry.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q60 New York City]</span>
 
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In Martin’s earlier life, in his youth as a student, his first real love was a white woman. He adored this young lady and was deeply pained when the wrath of Daddy King and everybody else came down on him when he suggested that he wanted a relationship with this young lady. It betrayed everything that Daddy King had in mind for his son.
 
In Martin’s earlier life, in his youth as a student, his first real love was a white woman. He adored this young lady and was deeply pained when the wrath of Daddy King and everybody else came down on him when he suggested that he wanted a relationship with this young lady. It betrayed everything that Daddy King had in mind for his son.
 
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When I met Daddy King in Atlanta, I understood the real meaning of patriarch. He was a huge force in the community as a black minister.
 
When I met Daddy King in Atlanta, I understood the real meaning of patriarch. He was a huge force in the community as a black minister.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
 
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Very imposing.
 
Very imposing.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span>
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And when you met him you understood that you were dealing with the power. What was also fascinating for me was the subservience that Martin reflected when talking with his father.
 
And when you met him you understood that you were dealing with the power. What was also fascinating for me was the subservience that Martin reflected when talking with his father.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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Not just parental, but as someone whose view of where we should be going as a people held great substance for Martin.
 
Not just parental, but as someone whose view of where we should be going as a people held great substance for Martin.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
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Martin really understood his father, but he understood also the difference between he and his father.
 
Martin really understood his father, but he understood also the difference between he and his father.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
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There was a great difference between he and his father’s preaching. Martin made his points at a different level and in a different way than most other preachers did. And the reason for that was—is—because he had this unusual education.
 
There was a great difference between he and his father’s preaching. Martin made his points at a different level and in a different way than most other preachers did. And the reason for that was—is—because he had this unusual education.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1423891 minister]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8434 education]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1423891 minister]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8434 education]</span>
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Dr. King finished high school at fifteen. He finished Morehouse at nineteen. He finished seminary at twenty-two, his PHD at twenty-six. He knew that strong minds break strong chains.
 
Dr. King finished high school at fifteen. He finished Morehouse at nineteen. He finished seminary at twenty-two, his PHD at twenty-six. He knew that strong minds break strong chains.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8434 education]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8434 education]</span>
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I think his faith in the teachings that he had studied, his constant references to Thoreau and -- I never knew of these guys, never heard of these people,
 
I think his faith in the teachings that he had studied, his constant references to Thoreau and -- I never knew of these guys, never heard of these people,
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131149 Henry David Thoreau]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131149 Henry David Thoreau]</span>
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until Martin came in one day and in the midst of some rather casual moment, he would evoke what Nietzsche said, and what Thoreau -- and I’m sitting there saying, “Well who’s Nietzsche?”
 
until Martin came in one day and in the midst of some rather casual moment, he would evoke what Nietzsche said, and what Thoreau -- and I’m sitting there saying, “Well who’s Nietzsche?”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9358 Friedrich Nietzsche]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9358 Friedrich Nietzsche]</span>
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Daddy King used to say, “Just get in there and talk the gospel, stop all with this college stuff and all these highfalutin people you keep evoking. People don’t know who they are. He said, “Yes they do.”
 
Daddy King used to say, “Just get in there and talk the gospel, stop all with this college stuff and all these highfalutin people you keep evoking. People don’t know who they are. He said, “Yes they do.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131149 Henry David Thoreau]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9358 Friedrich Nietzsche]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131149 Henry David Thoreau]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9358 Friedrich Nietzsche]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
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You could wake Martin up from a nap and he could do a sermon. I remember saying to him, “You are due at the church in twenty minutes.” I mean like his mother.
 
You could wake Martin up from a nap and he could do a sermon. I remember saying to him, “You are due at the church in twenty minutes.” I mean like his mother.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5242962 nap]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5242962 nap]</span>
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And when he got to the church, you would think he’d been studying all night. He was a natural preacher.
 
And when he got to the church, you would think he’d been studying all night. He was a natural preacher.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1423891 minister]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1423891 minister]</span>
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Everybody loved Martin as soon as they heard him. There was a desire for people to be a part of an educated ministry. The only thing that we had was Christianity. The only thing that white America allowed us to have was our churches.
 
Everybody loved Martin as soon as they heard him. There was a desire for people to be a part of an educated ministry. The only thing that we had was Christianity. The only thing that white America allowed us to have was our churches.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1423891 minister]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q211198 audience]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8434 education]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16970 church building]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1423891 minister]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q211198 audience]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8434 education]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16970 church building]</span>
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Martin’s moments when the curtain was drawn, and he was not on public display, was a man who revealed his deepest concerns about his right to do what he was doing.
 
Martin’s moments when the curtain was drawn, and he was not on public display, was a man who revealed his deepest concerns about his right to do what he was doing.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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The fact that he was touched by that calling in history, disturbed him because he didn’t quite understand it. He referred everything to divine intervention, to divine power. It’s what God has called on me to do.
 
The fact that he was touched by that calling in history, disturbed him because he didn’t quite understand it. He referred everything to divine intervention, to divine power. It’s what God has called on me to do.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q64118 Le Bellay-en-Vexin]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q64118 Le Bellay-en-Vexin]</span>
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And in the depth of that belief, that religious commitment, those voices that he heard really existed for him. Daddy King, I don’t think, was fully approving of where the movement was going. He saw nothing but chaos.
 
And in the depth of that belief, that religious commitment, those voices that he heard really existed for him. Daddy King, I don’t think, was fully approving of where the movement was going. He saw nothing but chaos.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9174 religion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9174 religion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
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He saw nothing but rage, he saw these young, young people.
 
He saw nothing but rage, he saw these young, young people.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/belafonte#00:20:19 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="belafonte#00:20:19" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
With the birth of SNCC, (teargas canister exploding) and the kinds of passion that poured forth from these young people.
 
With the birth of SNCC, (teargas canister exploding) and the kinds of passion that poured forth from these young people.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q127723 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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Many of whom were not much younger than his son. And, the fact that his son was at the spearhead of it, was even more threatening for him.
 
Many of whom were not much younger than his son. And, the fact that his son was at the spearhead of it, was even more threatening for him.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q13582404 danger]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2603376 Martin Luther King, Sr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q13582404 danger]</span>
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Dr. King asked me and Stokely to come over and have dinner at his house, and that he just wanted to talk. And so, we went over to his house. He wanted to understand where Black Power came from.
 
Dr. King asked me and Stokely to come over and have dinner at his house, and that he just wanted to talk. And so, we went over to his house. He wanted to understand where Black Power came from.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3030248 discussion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q657221 dinner]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q509860 Stokely Carmichael]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3030248 discussion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q657221 dinner]</span>
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He wanted to know everything we were thinking, where we were going with it. The discussion was about three hours long. And then what we wanted to know was, as a moral icon of the movement, when was he going to make a statement against the war in Vietnam.
 
He wanted to know everything we were thinking, where we were going with it. The discussion was about three hours long. And then what we wanted to know was, as a moral icon of the movement, when was he going to make a statement against the war in Vietnam.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3030248 discussion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5132235 Cleveland Sellers]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21260516 Black Power movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3030248 discussion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
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The leaders of the peace movement were reaching out the Dr. King and wanted him to get more actively and publicly involved, but I resisted because my initial reaction is I felt that they were trying appropriate the legitimacy they didn’t have.
 
The leaders of the peace movement were reaching out the Dr. King and wanted him to get more actively and publicly involved, but I resisted because my initial reaction is I felt that they were trying appropriate the legitimacy they didn’t have.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q708312 peace movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1251441 leader]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q708312 peace movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1251441 leader]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jones#01:45:35 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jones#01:45:35" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
Politically, we had to be very cautious about whether or not we wanted to publically criticize what could be described as having been the greatest president for civil rights since Abraham Lincoln.
 
Politically, we had to be very cautious about whether or not we wanted to publically criticize what could be described as having been the greatest president for civil rights since Abraham Lincoln.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q191600 civil and political rights]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q91 Abraham Lincoln]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q191600 civil and political rights]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q91 Abraham Lincoln]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jones#01:45:35 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jones#01:45:35" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
This is after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and here we’re going to publically excoriate and criticize the man without who’s leadership none of this would have been possible.
 
This is after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and here we’re going to publically excoriate and criticize the man without who’s leadership none of this would have been possible.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q26261726 Civil Rights Act]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1608064 Voting Rights Act of 1965]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q26261726 Civil Rights Act]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1608064 Voting Rights Act of 1965]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span>
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The anti-war movement was a new constituency for us. There was a spiritual connectivity that we were comfortable with, and we understood their positions. They wanted to emulate our tactics.
 
The anti-war movement was a new constituency for us. There was a spiritual connectivity that we were comfortable with, and we understood their positions. They wanted to emulate our tactics.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q794691 anti-war movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2000344 tactic]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q794691 anti-war movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2000344 tactic]</span>
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But, there were radical elements of violence and anti-American discussion, and we didn’t want him taking his moral position in to an extreme left environment with kids who were kind of anti-American, who were communists, who were burning American flags. And we could not control that.
 
But, there were radical elements of violence and anti-American discussion, and we didn’t want him taking his moral position in to an extreme left environment with kids who were kind of anti-American, who were communists, who were burning American flags. And we could not control that.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q14850797 political radicalism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6186 communism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1426793 flag desecration]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q14850797 political radicalism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6186 communism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1426793 flag desecration]</span>
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Johnson was worried, because communists were on the other side on the war, and over the years the FBI was constantly investigating King and citing one or two of his associates who they said were communists. He was afraid that the FBI would leak it, Hoover would really get King branded as a communist, and it would build up an enormous backlash.
 
Johnson was worried, because communists were on the other side on the war, and over the years the FBI was constantly investigating King and citing one or two of his associates who they said were communists. He was afraid that the FBI would leak it, Hoover would really get King branded as a communist, and it would build up an enormous backlash.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6186 communism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6186 communism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span>
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For a long period of time, every conversation was wire-tapped secretly by the FBI. And the contents of the conversations, written down, transcribed verbatim, and put in files marked “Top Secret”.
 
For a long period of time, every conversation was wire-tapped secretly by the FBI. And the contents of the conversations, written down, transcribed verbatim, and put in files marked “Top Secret”.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q334401 surveillance]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1067529 telephone tapping]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q334401 surveillance]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1067529 telephone tapping]</span>
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And a top agent at the FBI said that Martin Luther King Jr. is the most dangerous and most powerful Negro in America.
 
And a top agent at the FBI said that Martin Luther King Jr. is the most dangerous and most powerful Negro in America.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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In 1964, they were bugging Dr. King and they also picked up his sexual activity. Hoover would send these memos out. The memos would be all about King’s life. I mean, they were obviously designed to destroy this guy.
 
In 1964, they were bugging Dr. King and they also picked up his sexual activity. Hoover would send these memos out. The memos would be all about King’s life. I mean, they were obviously designed to destroy this guy.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1067529 telephone tapping]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1526779 Rufmord]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1067529 telephone tapping]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1526779 Rufmord]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lewis#00:20:20 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lewis#00:20:20" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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I think J. Edgar Hoover hated, despised Dr. King.
 
I think J. Edgar Hoover hated, despised Dr. King.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q210435 J. Edgar Hoover]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q210435 J. Edgar Hoover]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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Hoover just was one of these people with an immense amount of power who abused that power. He used information improperly. He was singularly arrogant about his position. And underlying it had this feeling of superiority to people of color. And I said, “they should take that son-of-a-bitch’s name off the building,” because he was the antithesis of what you wanted in a democracy.
 
Hoover just was one of these people with an immense amount of power who abused that power. He used information improperly. He was singularly arrogant about his position. And underlying it had this feeling of superiority to people of color. And I said, “they should take that son-of-a-bitch’s name off the building,” because he was the antithesis of what you wanted in a democracy.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1101295 Clifford Alexander, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q210435 J. Edgar Hoover]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25107 power]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2072081 person of color]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1101295 Clifford Alexander, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q210435 J. Edgar Hoover]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25107 power]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2072081 person of color]</span>
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You know, during those days, we assume that we all were being wiretapped or spied on. But I think the people who made the recordings were really sick.
 
You know, during those days, we assume that we all were being wiretapped or spied on. But I think the people who made the recordings were really sick.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1067529 telephone tapping]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q334401 surveillance]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1067529 telephone tapping]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q334401 surveillance]</span>
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Everything the FBI was doing to hurt us made us question whether this country was so sick that it couldn’t be saved. We were never running a program of personal piety.
 
Everything the FBI was doing to hurt us made us question whether this country was so sick that it couldn’t be saved. We were never running a program of personal piety.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/young#01:52:58 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="young#01:52:58" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
We were running a program of social and political and economic justice, and it’s while we are yet sinners that Christ died for us. And, it’s one of the things that makes it possible for us to understand the difficulties and weaknesses in other people is that we’re aware of them in ourselves.
 
We were running a program of social and political and economic justice, and it’s while we are yet sinners that Christ died for us. And, it’s one of the things that makes it possible for us to understand the difficulties and weaknesses in other people is that we’re aware of them in ourselves.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q264892 social justice]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q264892 social justice]</span>
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I think it’s very important for us to see that you can go on doing the good works and have slipped and fallen, you know, or gotten drunk or womanized. But since we have no idea how his struggle felt, we don’t have any room to criticize it.
 
I think it’s very important for us to see that you can go on doing the good works and have slipped and fallen, you know, or gotten drunk or womanized. But since we have no idea how his struggle felt, we don’t have any room to criticize it.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131725 Joan Baez]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131725 Joan Baez]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jones#01:16:28 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jones#01:16:28" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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Martin Luther King Jr. was a human being, and he was imperfect. He was conflicted by traveling so much, and may not have felt that he was being the best father or husband that he could be, but his love for his family was unchallengeable.
 
Martin Luther King Jr. was a human being, and he was imperfect. He was conflicted by traveling so much, and may not have felt that he was being the best father or husband that he could be, but his love for his family was unchallengeable.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span>
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Coretta believed in his cause so much that she was willing to pay the price, and she tried hard to have him spend as much time with the children as he could cause he wasn’t home that much.
 
Coretta believed in his cause so much that she was willing to pay the price, and she tried hard to have him spend as much time with the children as he could cause he wasn’t home that much.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span>
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When he was home, she insisted that he have dinner with the children.
 
When he was home, she insisted that he have dinner with the children.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q657221 dinner]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q657221 dinner]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#01:21:17 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#01:21:17" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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Martin Luther King wrestled with coming out publically taking a stand against the war in Vietnam. But, Mrs. King was involved in the anti-war movement long before, so she had a lot of influence on Martin Luther King coming to that conclusion.
 
Martin Luther King wrestled with coming out publically taking a stand against the war in Vietnam. But, Mrs. King was involved in the anti-war movement long before, so she had a lot of influence on Martin Luther King coming to that conclusion.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q794691 anti-war movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q794691 anti-war movement]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/01:59:56 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="01:59:56" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/01:59:56 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="01:59:56" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
I come to express my own personal witness for the cause of peace. In the civil rights struggle if we win all of the rights and privileges that we are fighting for and have no world in which to exercise these, then there is really no need for our efforts.
 
I come to express my own personal witness for the cause of peace. In the civil rights struggle if we win all of the rights and privileges that we are fighting for and have no world in which to exercise these, then there is really no need for our efforts.
  
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Andy Young had called me. I was the Executive Director of a group that wanted to stop the war and engage the religious community to help do that. So, Andy proposed that Dr. King give a speech in New York and Dr. King decided to make a full-blown statement. So, I said, well, what about Riverside Church? Because I think place makes a big difference.
 
Andy Young had called me. I was the Executive Director of a group that wanted to stop the war and engage the religious community to help do that. So, Andy proposed that Dr. King give a speech in New York and Dr. King decided to make a full-blown statement. So, I said, well, what about Riverside Church? Because I think place makes a big difference.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1156586 Riverside Church]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1156586 Riverside Church]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/belafonte#01:10:37 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="belafonte#01:10:37" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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When he came to the Vietnamese speech he struggled with it. And, I remember very much because he wrote a big part of it in our home. I have on my wall in the hallway, a copy of his writings and the notes that he made.
 
When he came to the Vietnamese speech he struggled with it. And, I remember very much because he wrote a big part of it in our home. I have on my wall in the hallway, a copy of his writings and the notes that he made.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/belafonte#01:10:37 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="belafonte#01:10:37" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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He had a habit of using a yellow pad, constantly making notes, and he’d crumble up these things at the end of an evening and toss it away and I just do a swan dive right into the garbage pail and retrieve those papers ‘cause he always left some really profound sentence or something that I thought was worth retrieving and saving.
 
He had a habit of using a yellow pad, constantly making notes, and he’d crumble up these things at the end of an evening and toss it away and I just do a swan dive right into the garbage pail and retrieve those papers ‘cause he always left some really profound sentence or something that I thought was worth retrieving and saving.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q36180 writer]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q36180 writer]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/baez#00:13:47 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="baez#00:13:47" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
Dr. King knew where his heart was, but he also knew the criticism and the splits that would happen the moment he said anything against the war in Vietnam, and, of course, he did.
 
Dr. King knew where his heart was, but he also knew the criticism and the splits that would happen the moment he said anything against the war in Vietnam, and, of course, he did.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131725 Joan Baez]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q131725 Joan Baez]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lewis#00:08:41 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lewis#00:08:41" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lewis#00:08:41 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lewis#00:08:41" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
The night of April 4th 1967, I believe that Martin Luther King Jr. delivered probably one of the most powerful speeches I ever heard him deliver.
 
The night of April 4th 1967, I believe that Martin Luther King Jr. delivered probably one of the most powerful speeches I ever heard him deliver.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span>
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He said, in effect, that he was not going to butcher his conscience.
 
He said, in effect, that he was not going to butcher his conscience.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span>
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He said as a nation, we talk about nonviolence here in America, and then we engage in violence abroad. He said in effect that the bombs that we’re dropping in Vietnam, they would be shattered over America.
 
He said as a nation, we talk about nonviolence here in America, and then we engage in violence abroad. He said in effect that the bombs that we’re dropping in Vietnam, they would be shattered over America.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span>
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Dr. King was worried that the government had gotten us into war where we didn’t need to be, and we were hurting ourselves. The returning veterans, the inflation, the unemployment: the consequences of the war.
 
Dr. King was worried that the government had gotten us into war where we didn’t need to be, and we were hurting ourselves. The returning veterans, the inflation, the unemployment: the consequences of the war.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q198 war]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q198 war]</span>
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He literally poured out his heart, the depth and essence of his soul. I’ve heard many sermons, I was at the March on Washington, but I think the speech at Riverside Church was his best.
 
He literally poured out his heart, the depth and essence of his soul. I’ve heard many sermons, I was at the March on Washington, but I think the speech at Riverside Church was his best.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1156586 Riverside Church]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1128871 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1156586 Riverside Church]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1128871 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom]</span>
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When the speech ended, the place exploded and I knew it was electric. I knew he had hit it out of the park. But, the next morning he was blasted in virtually every editorial column in America.
 
When the speech ended, the place exploded and I knew it was electric. I knew he had hit it out of the park. But, the next morning he was blasted in virtually every editorial column in America.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17502905 the media]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17502905 the media]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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Some of us didn’t want him to be that hard in the speech, but he said, “I’m trapped by my own, you know, beliefs,” and I think that that was one of the things that J. Edgar Hoover used to try to turn the government completely against him.
 
Some of us didn’t want him to be that hard in the speech, but he said, “I’m trapped by my own, you know, beliefs,” and I think that that was one of the things that J. Edgar Hoover used to try to turn the government completely against him.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q210435 J. Edgar Hoover]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16209479 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q210435 J. Edgar Hoover]</span>
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Dr. King took on our government in a war time. He was taking on angry people and misguided people in a war time.
 
Dr. King took on our government in a war time. He was taking on angry people and misguided people in a war time.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48525 Federal Government of the United States]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48525 Federal Government of the United States]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
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He said, “Many of my friends are turning on me: many of my Morehouse friends, my classmates. Preachers have said I can’t come in their pulpits ‘cause we shouldn’t be engaged in the war.”
 
He said, “Many of my friends are turning on me: many of my Morehouse friends, my classmates. Preachers have said I can’t come in their pulpits ‘cause we shouldn’t be engaged in the war.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17297777 friend]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1423891 minister]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1524124 Morehouse College]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17297777 friend]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1423891 minister]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1524124 Morehouse College]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
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He said, “You expect your enemies to disagree with you.  What I didn’t understand is how our friends would leave me.” They stopped giving, they stopped calling, they stopped caring, and he was devastated.
 
He said, “You expect your enemies to disagree with you.  What I didn’t understand is how our friends would leave me.” They stopped giving, they stopped calling, they stopped caring, and he was devastated.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17297777 friend]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17297777 friend]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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Change is painful. The loneliness and what it must have felt like when he was so abandoned by so many and told to stay in your place.
 
Change is painful. The loneliness and what it must have felt like when he was so abandoned by so many and told to stay in your place.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q223270 loneliness]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q223270 loneliness]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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He really felt betrayed. And he said over and over, “They don’t know me.”
 
He really felt betrayed. And he said over and over, “They don’t know me.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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The way all of America turned on him when he stepped into the Vietnam drama was perhaps the single most challenging moment for Martin.
 
The way all of America turned on him when he stepped into the Vietnam drama was perhaps the single most challenging moment for Martin.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q846570 Americans]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q846570 Americans]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span>
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Martin went through very difficult, emotional times in 1967. He had a doctor in New York, and I remember sitting with Dr. Logan, and he generally felt that the state of Martin’s emotional health was such that, that he maybe should seek some kind of third-party independent psychiatric counselling.
 
Martin went through very difficult, emotional times in 1967. He had a doctor in New York, and I remember sitting with Dr. Logan, and he generally felt that the state of Martin’s emotional health was such that, that he maybe should seek some kind of third-party independent psychiatric counselling.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q39631 physician]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q60 New York City]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7867 psychiatry]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q39631 physician]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q60 New York City]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7867 psychiatry]</span>
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I looked at Dr. Logan, and I said, “That’s not gonna happen.” I was very blunt, and I said, “If not within 24 hours, within 24 days, the FBI would find out, and everything that Martin King said to that psychiatrist would be immediately in FBI files. Can’t take that chance.”
 
I looked at Dr. Logan, and I said, “That’s not gonna happen.” I was very blunt, and I said, “If not within 24 hours, within 24 days, the FBI would find out, and everything that Martin King said to that psychiatrist would be immediately in FBI files. Can’t take that chance.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q39631 physician]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7867 psychiatry]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q39631 physician]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7867 psychiatry]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8333 Federal Bureau of Investigation]</span>
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You gon’ sit in front of your television set and listen to LBJ tell you that, “Violence never accomplishes anything, my fellow Americans.” (crowd cheers) But, you see, the real problem with violence is that we have never been violent. We have been too nonviolent. Too nonviolent. (crowd cheers)
 
You gon’ sit in front of your television set and listen to LBJ tell you that, “Violence never accomplishes anything, my fellow Americans.” (crowd cheers) But, you see, the real problem with violence is that we have never been violent. We have been too nonviolent. Too nonviolent. (crowd cheers)
  
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Martin Luther King called me from Atlanta, and he said to me very directly, “I need you to come on down here now because this may be my last campaign, and we’re going for broke.
 
Martin Luther King called me from Atlanta, and he said to me very directly, “I need you to come on down here now because this may be my last campaign, and we’re going for broke.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q23556 Atlanta]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q506259 direct action]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q23556 Atlanta]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q506259 direct action]</span>
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He said, “Let’s go to Washington. We’re going to Washington, if necessary, going to jail, civil disobedience, and convince this Congress to shift from war in Vietnam to war on poverty.”
 
He said, “Let’s go to Washington. We’re going to Washington, if necessary, going to jail, civil disobedience, and convince this Congress to shift from war in Vietnam to war on poverty.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q506259 direct action]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q61 Washington, D.C.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q47217 civil disobedience]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q506259 direct action]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q61 Washington, D.C.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q47217 civil disobedience]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span>
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It was Marian Edelman who came to Martin with the concept of the Poor People’s Campaign.
 
It was Marian Edelman who came to Martin with the concept of the Poor People’s Campaign.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span>
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I got called to Washington to testify about poverty and what was happening in Mississippi.
 
I got called to Washington to testify about poverty and what was happening in Mississippi.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q61 Washington, D.C.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1196258 testimony]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1494 Mississippi]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q61 Washington, D.C.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1196258 testimony]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1494 Mississippi]</span>
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In the middle of it all, I asked them to come and see for themselves. And Bobby Kennedy came with them.
 
In the middle of it all, I asked them to come and see for themselves. And Bobby Kennedy came with them.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1196258 testimony]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25310 Robert F. Kennedy]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1196258 testimony]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25310 Robert F. Kennedy]</span>
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Robert Kennedy went back to Washington, and I told him I was going to stop through Atlanta and see Martin and he said, “Well tell him to bring the poor to Washington.”
 
Robert Kennedy went back to Washington, and I told him I was going to stop through Atlanta and see Martin and he said, “Well tell him to bring the poor to Washington.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25310 Robert F. Kennedy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21171811 the poor]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q61 Washington, D.C.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q23556 Atlanta]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25310 Robert F. Kennedy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21171811 the poor]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q61 Washington, D.C.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q23556 Atlanta]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/edelman#00:25:31 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="edelman#00:25:31" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/edelman#00:25:31 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="edelman#00:25:31" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
I went down to Atlanta and went to SCLC, and he was depressed. I mean, he was sitting in his office by himself. And I told him what Robert Kennedy said – he ought to bring the poor to Washington – and he lit up, he just lit up.
 
I went down to Atlanta and went to SCLC, and he was depressed. I mean, he was sitting in his office by himself. And I told him what Robert Kennedy said – he ought to bring the poor to Washington – and he lit up, he just lit up.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q23556 Atlanta]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4340209 mental depression]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25310 Robert F. Kennedy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q61 Washington, D.C.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q23556 Atlanta]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4340209 mental depression]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25310 Robert F. Kennedy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q61 Washington, D.C.]</span>
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{{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eQXD_44Kso&start=4309&end=4314&autoplay=1|player=kitw011149|urlargs=autoplay=true}}&nbsp;
<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/young#01:49:12 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="young#01:49:12" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/young#01:49:12 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="young#01:49:12" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
I think he was realizing that he was running out of gas. And the attacks and the criticisms on him were getting more and more vicious. But he was really aware of the fact that we had not hardly raised the issue of poverty.
 
I think he was realizing that he was running out of gas. And the attacks and the criticisms on him were getting more and more vicious. But he was really aware of the fact that we had not hardly raised the issue of poverty.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q331769 mood]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q331769 mood]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span>
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{{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eQXD_44Kso&start=4348&end=4353&autoplay=1|player=kitw011228|urlargs=autoplay=true}}&nbsp;
<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#01:45:45 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#01:45:45" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#01:45:45 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#01:45:45" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
Martin Luther King embraced the idea of the Poor People’s campaign, and he wanted to move ahead with it. But initially, he did not have the support of his executive staff. People felt already committed to what they were working on at that time.
 
Martin Luther King embraced the idea of the Poor People’s campaign, and he wanted to move ahead with it. But initially, he did not have the support of his executive staff. People felt already committed to what they were working on at that time.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q703534 employee]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q703534 employee]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jackson#00:12:31 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jackson#00:12:31" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jackson#00:12:31 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jackson#00:12:31" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
He used to say that he was the pilot of the plane, but we were the ground crew. And that the ground crew of the plane cannot leave the ground.
 
He used to say that he was the pilot of the plane, but we were the ground crew. And that the ground crew of the plane cannot leave the ground.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q703534 employee]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2095549 aircraft pilot]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3605083 groundcrew]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q703534 employee]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2095549 aircraft pilot]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3605083 groundcrew]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#01:51:08 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#01:51:08" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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Martin Luther King went on a fast to reunite people and get them to think collectively how they could participate.
 
Martin Luther King went on a fast to reunite people and get them to think collectively how they could participate.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q44602 fasting]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q44602 fasting]</span>
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And, they finally thought coming aboard.
 
And, they finally thought coming aboard.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/clayton#00:18:39 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="clayton#00:18:39" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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His staff was all concerned. They said, “you know, we haven’t seen him laugh in a long time.
 
His staff was all concerned. They said, “you know, we haven’t seen him laugh in a long time.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q170579 laughter]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8043788 Xernona Clayton]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q170579 laughter]</span>
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{{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eQXD_44Kso&start=4411&end=4416&autoplay=1|player=kitw011331|urlargs=autoplay=true}}&nbsp;
<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/clayton#00:20:32 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="clayton#00:20:32" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/clayton#00:20:32 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="clayton#00:20:32" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
So, they called me, and told me, “think of something to do to make him laugh.” And this was January 15th, his birthday, which ended up being his last birthday. Q8043788 Q8027 Q47223 [MLK staff] Q170579
 
So, they called me, and told me, “think of something to do to make him laugh.” And this was January 15th, his birthday, which ended up being his last birthday. Q8043788 Q8027 Q47223 [MLK staff] Q170579
  
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/belafonte#01:42:13 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="belafonte#01:42:13" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/belafonte#01:42:13 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="belafonte#01:42:13" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
I don’t think anyone possessed the capacity for humor, both in receiving it and responding joyously, as Dr. King.
 
I don’t think anyone possessed the capacity for humor, both in receiving it and responding joyously, as Dr. King.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
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Much of the time I was the victim. I mean, if he felt somebody was sensitive, he wouldn’t pick on ‘em, but he would take something that somebody else said or did and blame it on me.
 
Much of the time I was the victim. I mean, if he felt somebody was sensitive, he wouldn’t pick on ‘em, but he would take something that somebody else said or did and blame it on me.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jones#01:01:12 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jones#01:01:12" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jones#01:01:12 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jones#01:01:12" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
He had a good way of imitating people. He would imitate Andy, or he would say, “Now, Andy, if you do something foolish and you go out there and get assassinated,” he said, “I promise, I’m gonna preach the best funeral for you.”
 
He had a good way of imitating people. He would imitate Andy, or he would say, “Now, Andy, if you do something foolish and you go out there and get assassinated,” he said, “I promise, I’m gonna preach the best funeral for you.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1148872 impressionist]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1148872 impressionist]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
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And then he would start preaching your funeral. And, he would do a very sadistic caricature (laughs) of all of your faults and foibles, and things that you would never want said about you in public. And he’d weave it into a sermon, and quite often he’d have a similar demon from the bible who had the same problems. And, by the time he got through, he had everybody laughing at what was a life and death situation. Mostly his life.
 
And then he would start preaching your funeral. And, he would do a very sadistic caricature (laughs) of all of your faults and foibles, and things that you would never want said about you in public. And he’d weave it into a sermon, and quite often he’d have a similar demon from the bible who had the same problems. And, by the time he got through, he had everybody laughing at what was a life and death situation. Mostly his life.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q60797 sermon]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q201676 funeral]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q60797 sermon]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q201676 funeral]</span>
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That was the way of externalizing the fact that he had somehow talk about the elephant in the room that we all had to live with.
 
That was the way of externalizing the fact that he had somehow talk about the elephant in the room that we all had to live with.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
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Martin joked about it because there wasn’t any other way to be.
 
Martin joked about it because there wasn’t any other way to be.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q35874 humour]</span>
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Dr. King’s expression of his anxiety about this whole world in which he found himself, was not unfounded. His fears were very real because the conditions were very real.
 
Dr. King’s expression of his anxiety about this whole world in which he found himself, was not unfounded. His fears were very real because the conditions were very real.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q154430 anxiety]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q44619 fear]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q154430 anxiety]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q44619 fear]</span>
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I had noticed that he had a tic. He had occasion to get caught.
 
I had noticed that he had a tic. He had occasion to get caught.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q738538 tic]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q738538 tic]</span>
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It wasn’t consistent, but it was apparent in enough situations for us to know that there was a psychological problem there. And then one day, that tick was no longer evident. I said to him, I said, “Now what happened to the tick?” He said, “No, that’s gone.” And I said, “Well, how’d you get rid of it,” and he said, “I made my peace with death.”
 
It wasn’t consistent, but it was apparent in enough situations for us to know that there was a psychological problem there. And then one day, that tick was no longer evident. I said to him, I said, “Now what happened to the tick?” He said, “No, that’s gone.” And I said, “Well, how’d you get rid of it,” and he said, “I made my peace with death.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q738538 tic]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q454 peace]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4 death]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q738538 tic]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q454 peace]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4 death]</span>
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I think he always knew that each and every thing he did could be the last thing that he did. And he used to say that if you’re really gonna be free that you have to overcome the love of wealth and the fear of death.
 
I think he always knew that each and every thing he did could be the last thing that he did. And he used to say that if you’re really gonna be free that you have to overcome the love of wealth and the fear of death.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4 death]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4 death]</span>
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He was prepared to die, but he was also determined that his death and his life would have meaning, and I think that’s what he was wrestling with—with Vietnam and Chicago… (Martin Luther King: Tell Hosea and Ralph to rush off) …and the Poor People’s Campaign.
 
He was prepared to die, but he was also determined that his death and his life would have meaning, and I think that’s what he was wrestling with—with Vietnam and Chicago… (Martin Luther King: Tell Hosea and Ralph to rush off) …and the Poor People’s Campaign.
 
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  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4 death]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8740 Vietnam War]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1297 Chicago]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span>
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Dr. King appointed me as program administrator.
 
Dr. King appointed me as program administrator.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
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And usually our campaign was related to discrimination and racism, so we were talking about, you know, black people for the most part.
 
And usually our campaign was related to discrimination and racism, so we were talking about, you know, black people for the most part.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q169207 discrimination]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8461 racism]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q169207 discrimination]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8461 racism]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#01:47:27 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#01:47:27" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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But, I said, “Well, there are Chicanos who are poor, you want them to be in--?” He said, “Yes, we want them to be involved.” I said, “Okay,” and so I said, “What about the Native Americans?” He said, “Well yeah, Native Americans.” So, by this time he turned around and looked up at me ‘cause he’d anticipated the next question. I said, “Well, Dr. King, what about the poor whites?” And he said to me, a little disgusted, he said, "Are they poor?" I said, “Well, yes.” “Well we want them involved!”
 
But, I said, “Well, there are Chicanos who are poor, you want them to be in--?” He said, “Yes, we want them to be involved.” I said, “Okay,” and so I said, “What about the Native Americans?” He said, “Well yeah, Native Americans.” So, by this time he turned around and looked up at me ‘cause he’d anticipated the next question. I said, “Well, Dr. King, what about the poor whites?” And he said to me, a little disgusted, he said, "Are they poor?" I said, “Well, yes.” “Well we want them involved!”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21171811 the poor]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q10294 poverty]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21171811 the poor]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/edelman#00:38:18 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="edelman#00:38:18" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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That was a very big thing that happened. Of getting – finding common ground among the poor. That didn’t make things easy, but it was a big benchmark into the next stage of the civil rights movement, which had to do with economic rights.
 
That was a very big thing that happened. Of getting – finding common ground among the poor. That didn’t make things easy, but it was a big benchmark into the next stage of the civil rights movement, which had to do with economic rights.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21171811 the poor]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q21171811 the poor]</span>
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We were in a staff meeting, and Martin Luther King got this call from Memphis.
 
We were in a staff meeting, and Martin Luther King got this call from Memphis.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span>
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The sanitation workers were strikin’ because the wage was so low, and they were concerned about safety, so they were trying to get some support and protection.
 
The sanitation workers were strikin’ because the wage was so low, and they were concerned about safety, so they were trying to get some support and protection.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6815871 Memphis Sanitation Strike]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6815871 Memphis Sanitation Strike]</span>
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One of the most powerful things that you see during that time is all of the garbage workers had these sandwich board signs that said “I AM A MAN.” That was saying, we want to be treated with dignity. Q5126400 [protest sign] Q15631336 Q30515 Q6815871
 
One of the most powerful things that you see during that time is all of the garbage workers had these sandwich board signs that said “I AM A MAN.” That was saying, we want to be treated with dignity. Q5126400 [protest sign] Q15631336 Q30515 Q6815871
  
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BERNARD LAFAYETTE When Martin Luther King got the call, he said he had to go. He said, you guys stay and continue working on the poor people’s campaign.
 
BERNARD LAFAYETTE When Martin Luther King got the call, he said he had to go. He said, you guys stay and continue working on the poor people’s campaign.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
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We did not want him to go to Memphis at all. But he got up at six o’clock in the morning, and he said, “Imma catch the flight to Memphis.”
 
We did not want him to go to Memphis at all. But he got up at six o’clock in the morning, and he said, “Imma catch the flight to Memphis.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1592155 Helophyte]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1592155 Helophyte]</span>
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Martin went to a march that we had nothing to do with, no pre-planning, and, and it got disrupted.
 
Martin went to a march that we had nothing to do with, no pre-planning, and, and it got disrupted.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15631336 protest march]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6815871 Memphis Sanitation Strike]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q15631336 protest march]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6815871 Memphis Sanitation Strike]</span>
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CLARENCE JONES There were some young men outside of the garbage workers who took the wooden sticks that held some of the I AM A MAN signs together and used them to smash windows. Q5126400 Q6815871 [protest sign] Q25473
 
CLARENCE JONES There were some young men outside of the garbage workers who took the wooden sticks that held some of the I AM A MAN signs together and used them to smash windows. Q5126400 Q6815871 [protest sign] Q25473
  
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In between the first march and our going back to Memphis, Martin gave us a good cussin’ out in his office about not being supportive of him. And, it was the only time I saw him angry at the whole staff.
 
In between the first march and our going back to Memphis, Martin gave us a good cussin’ out in his office about not being supportive of him. And, it was the only time I saw him angry at the whole staff.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q703534 employee]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q79871 anger]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q703534 employee]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q79871 anger]</span>
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He cussed us out, got up, and walked out. And we went behind him, trying to reassure him, but he just – he just went on off.
 
He cussed us out, got up, and walked out. And we went behind him, trying to reassure him, but he just – he just went on off.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q79871 anger]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q79871 anger]</span>
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Dr. King said, “I feel so alone.” He was frustrated, he was full of pain. And, I understand that pain now. He said, “I, I’ve pondered – maybe I should quit now. Maybe I’ve done as much as I can do.”
 
Dr. King said, “I feel so alone.” He was frustrated, he was full of pain. And, I understand that pain now. He said, “I, I’ve pondered – maybe I should quit now. Maybe I’ve done as much as I can do.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span>
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I thought it was wrong to take on another movement in the state we were in. We were tired, and we knew he was tired.
 
I thought it was wrong to take on another movement in the state we were in. We were tired, and we knew he was tired.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9690 fatigue]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9690 fatigue]</span>
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The thing I think he had dreamed about from childhood was to be able to pastor a church like Riverside Church. And, they actually offered him the job as interim pastor. All of us said, “Look. You’re entitled to a sabbatical. You’ve been at this for twelve years nonstop.” He wouldn’t even consider it. He used to say, “some of us are not gonna live to be fifty, so you better live good right now.
 
The thing I think he had dreamed about from childhood was to be able to pastor a church like Riverside Church. And, they actually offered him the job as interim pastor. All of us said, “Look. You’re entitled to a sabbatical. You’ve been at this for twelve years nonstop.” He wouldn’t even consider it. He used to say, “some of us are not gonna live to be fifty, so you better live good right now.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30046560 philosophical viewpoint]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2141246 sabbatical]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30046560 philosophical viewpoint]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2141246 sabbatical]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/young#02:13:15 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="young#02:13:15" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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It was almost as though he saw death as an escape, and that he could not escape the way we wanted him to escape.
 
It was almost as though he saw death as an escape, and that he could not escape the way we wanted him to escape.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4 death]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4 death]</span>
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Before Dr. King left to go to Memphis, we all had dinner together at their home.
 
Before Dr. King left to go to Memphis, we all had dinner together at their home.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q657221 dinner]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q657221 dinner]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span>
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His mother was there and we all had a wonderful, wonderful afternoon. Playin’ the piano, singin’ church songs, tellin’ jokes. He said to me, “You know what, I bet you don’t really know that I can – I’m a good singer. Did you know that?”
 
His mother was there and we all had a wonderful, wonderful afternoon. Playin’ the piano, singin’ church songs, tellin’ jokes. He said to me, “You know what, I bet you don’t really know that I can – I’m a good singer. Did you know that?”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1110336 Alberta Williams King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q177220 singer]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5994 piano]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1110336 Alberta Williams King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q177220 singer]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5994 piano]</span>
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He said, “I’ma prove it to you. So, give me a B flat.” I gave him a B flat and he starts singin’, and, man, we got the rhythm of a gospel song. And, we just had such fun. Now, I was to drive him the next morning to the airport to go to Memphis. His mother called me and said, “I know you’re takin’ ML to the airport tomorrow. While you have his ear, will you tell him I wish we could have more family moments like that.
 
He said, “I’ma prove it to you. So, give me a B flat.” I gave him a B flat and he starts singin’, and, man, we got the rhythm of a gospel song. And, we just had such fun. Now, I was to drive him the next morning to the airport to go to Memphis. His mother called me and said, “I know you’re takin’ ML to the airport tomorrow. While you have his ear, will you tell him I wish we could have more family moments like that.
 
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  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q27939 singing]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1248784 airport]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1110336 Alberta Williams King]</span>
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Can you tell him to plan it in his schedule sometime after he comes back.
 
Can you tell him to plan it in his schedule sometime after he comes back.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8436 family]</span>
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After the march broke out in violence, we all went to Memphis, for two reasons: to support the Sanitation Workers’ march, so it would be nonviolent, but also to continue our discussion of the Poor People’s Campaign.
 
After the march broke out in violence, we all went to Memphis, for two reasons: to support the Sanitation Workers’ march, so it would be nonviolent, but also to continue our discussion of the Poor People’s Campaign.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6815871 Memphis Sanitation Strike]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q124490 violence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6815871 Memphis Sanitation Strike]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span>
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That night, there was a mass meeting at Mason Temple Church, and Martin Luther King was scheduled to go and speak, but it was pouring down raining.
 
That night, there was a mass meeting at Mason Temple Church, and Martin Luther King was scheduled to go and speak, but it was pouring down raining.
 
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  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6783628 Mason Temple]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7925 rain]</span>
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Dr. King had sat in the room most of the day. He said, “I have a headache, I don’t feel like going, but Jesse, will you go?” So, we went over there and we walked in the door, church was about three-quarters full and people cheering. You could sense they were expecting him.
 
Dr. King had sat in the room most of the day. He said, “I have a headache, I don’t feel like going, but Jesse, will you go?” So, we went over there and we walked in the door, church was about three-quarters full and people cheering. You could sense they were expecting him.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q133823 migraine]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6783628 Mason Temple]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q133823 migraine]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6783628 Mason Temple]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#02:08:55 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#02:08:55" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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Martin Luther King is already in his pajamas in bed and we were working on a press statement for Washington D.C.
 
Martin Luther King is already in his pajamas in bed and we were working on a press statement for Washington D.C.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q193204 pajamas]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17502905 the media]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q207184 press release]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q193204 pajamas]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17502905 the media]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q207184 press release]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jackson#00:44:49 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jackson#00:44:49" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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We went out the side of the church and called him on the pay telephone and said, “Martin, come just for a few minutes. You don’t have to stay long. They’re so ready for you.”
 
We went out the side of the church and called him on the pay telephone and said, “Martin, come just for a few minutes. You don’t have to stay long. They’re so ready for you.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6783628 Mason Temple]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q900977 payphone]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6783628 Mason Temple]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q900977 payphone]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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{{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eQXD_44Kso&start=5416&end=5421&autoplay=1|player=kitw013016|urlargs=autoplay=true}}&nbsp;
<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#02:08:55 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#02:08:55" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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I could only hear one side of the call, but Martin Luther King said, “Now, are you telling me that you want me to get up out of my bed and take off my pajamas and get dressed and come out in the pouring down rain,” okay, “to speak at this meeting?” So, obviously, the answer on the other side said yes.
 
I could only hear one side of the call, but Martin Luther King said, “Now, are you telling me that you want me to get up out of my bed and take off my pajamas and get dressed and come out in the pouring down rain,” okay, “to speak at this meeting?” So, obviously, the answer on the other side said yes.
 
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/young#01:56:52 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="young#01:56:52" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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Martin came to that church thinking that he was just gonna make remarks and not to give the major speech, but he got up and he gave that speech as though he knew that the end was near.
 
Martin came to that church thinking that he was just gonna make remarks and not to give the major speech, but he got up and he gave that speech as though he knew that the end was near.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6783628 Mason Temple]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q861911 speech]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5967210 I've Been to the Mountaintop]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q6783628 Mason Temple]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q861911 speech]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5967210 I've Been to the Mountaintop]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#00:13:03 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#00:13:03" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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The next morning, we were workin’ on the press statement for the Poor People’s Campaign.
 
The next morning, we were workin’ on the press statement for the Poor People’s Campaign.
 
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  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7722 morning]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q207184 press release]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7228810 Poor People's Campaign]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#02:10:32 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#02:10:32" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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Martin Luther King said to me, “Now, Bernard, the next project we’re gonna work on is to institutionalize and internationalize nonviolence.”
 
Martin Luther King said to me, “Now, Bernard, the next project we’re gonna work on is to institutionalize and internationalize nonviolence.”
 
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I was on the witness stand most of that day. We got permission to march and I came back to the Lorraine Motel. He was childish and giddy and cussed me out, you know, “Where you been?” He threw a pillow at me. I threw it back. But, everybody else picked up pillows and they were -- it was like a bunch of ten-year olds.
 
I was on the witness stand most of that day. We got permission to march and I came back to the Lorraine Motel. He was childish and giddy and cussed me out, you know, “Where you been?” He threw a pillow at me. I threw it back. But, everybody else picked up pillows and they were -- it was like a bunch of ten-year olds.
 
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And just about that time, Billy Kyles knocked on the door and said, “you all are my house by 6 o’clock. My wife’s got dinner waitin’.” And so, he jumped up and went upstairs to put on a shirt and tie.
 
And just about that time, Billy Kyles knocked on the door and said, “you all are my house by 6 o’clock. My wife’s got dinner waitin’.” And so, he jumped up and went upstairs to put on a shirt and tie.
 
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I was coming across the courtyard, and from the balcony, Dr. King said, “Jesse, you don’t even have on a tie!” So, I said, “Dr. King, a prerequisite for eating is an appetite.” He said, “You crazy.” We laughed.
 
I was coming across the courtyard, and from the balcony, Dr. King said, “Jesse, you don’t even have on a tie!” So, I said, “Dr. King, a prerequisite for eating is an appetite.” He said, “You crazy.” We laughed.
 
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He was just extremely relaxed and comfortable and playful. It was the happiest I had seen him in a long time.
 
He was just extremely relaxed and comfortable and playful. It was the happiest I had seen him in a long time.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8 happiness]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q16563 Memphis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8 happiness]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jackson#00:43:24 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jackson#00:43:24" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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We’d been laughing and playing, and—POW. And he raised up, bullet hit him right here. It severed his tie.
 
We’d been laughing and playing, and—POW. And he raised up, bullet hit him right here. It severed his tie.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q170579 laughter]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q170579 laughter]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span>
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{{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eQXD_44Kso&start=5586&end=5591&autoplay=1|player=kitw013306|urlargs=autoplay=true}}&nbsp;
<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jackson#00:48:40 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jackson#00:48:40" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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I got up and went running toward him, but, he was nonresponsive. So, I got up and went and called Mrs. King. It was a long ten steps to take from where he was to that phone. I said, “Mrs. King,” I said, “Dr. King been shot, I think he’s been shot in the shoulder, but I think you should come.” I really couldn’t say what I saw. It was like too much to say. Like I just couldn’t say that. I couldn’t say that.
 
I got up and went running toward him, but, he was nonresponsive. So, I got up and went and called Mrs. King. It was a long ten steps to take from where he was to that phone. I said, “Mrs. King,” I said, “Dr. King been shot, I think he’s been shot in the shoulder, but I think you should come.” I really couldn’t say what I saw. It was like too much to say. Like I just couldn’t say that. I couldn’t say that.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span>
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{{#evl:|:|0|service=youtube|id=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eQXD_44Kso&start=5657&end=5662&autoplay=1|player=kitw013417|urlargs=autoplay=true}}&nbsp;
<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/edelman#00:34:40 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="edelman#00:34:40" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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It was awful. My first thought was to go out and tell children not to loot and not to riot and ruin their lives. And this little boy about 12, looked me straight in the eye and said, “Lady what future, I ain’t got no future, I ain’t got nothing to lose.”
 
It was awful. My first thought was to go out and tell children not to loot and not to riot and ruin their lives. And this little boy about 12, looked me straight in the eye and said, “Lady what future, I ain’t got no future, I ain’t got nothing to lose.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/fernandez#01:20:08 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="fernandez#01:20:08" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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I was in Sarasota, Florida, with my parents, and we see this happening on the television, and the first thing out of my mother’s mouth was, “He deserved it. He was a rabble-rouser.”
 
I was in Sarasota, Florida, with my parents, and we see this happening on the television, and the first thing out of my mother’s mouth was, “He deserved it. He was a rabble-rouser.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span>
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I think of all the ups and downs, and all the turmoil, and the tragedies that occurred in those years, I never saw Johnson sadder, sadder about an event than he was at the assassination of King. And he said to me, “Give me a draft letter to the Speaker. You know, we’re gonna get one thing out of this awful event. We’re gonna get our Fair Housing bill.”
 
I think of all the ups and downs, and all the turmoil, and the tragedies that occurred in those years, I never saw Johnson sadder, sadder about an event than he was at the assassination of King. And he said to me, “Give me a draft letter to the Speaker. You know, we’re gonna get one thing out of this awful event. We’re gonna get our Fair Housing bill.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q169251 sadness]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5429960 Fair Housing Act]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1706385 Joseph A. Califano, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9640 Lyndon B. Johnson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q169251 sadness]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5429960 Fair Housing Act]</span>
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Before the funeral, Dr. King’s body was to lie in state at Spelman College. A security officer at Spelman called Mrs. King and said, “There must be thousands here. What must we do?” Then I said, “Mrs. King, the public will wait, you need to see him first.” So, we dashed over to the campus.
 
Before the funeral, Dr. King’s body was to lie in state at Spelman College. A security officer at Spelman called Mrs. King and said, “There must be thousands here. What must we do?” Then I said, “Mrs. King, the public will wait, you need to see him first.” So, we dashed over to the campus.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q201676 funeral]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7575916 Spelman College]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q201676 funeral]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7575916 Spelman College]</span>
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I didn’t see the body ‘til I got up close. I nearly died. He looked awful. He had a big blob of clay on his face. Mrs. King was standing there in such pain. The embalmer loudly said, “His jaw was blown off! This is the best I can do.” And, oh, she nearly fainted. So I took out some loose powder, and I dabbed a little on his face, toning it down, and Coretta smiled. It was working. And, she said, “open the door and let ‘em in.”
 
I didn’t see the body ‘til I got up close. I nearly died. He looked awful. He had a big blob of clay on his face. Mrs. King was standing there in such pain. The embalmer loudly said, “His jaw was blown off! This is the best I can do.” And, oh, she nearly fainted. So I took out some loose powder, and I dabbed a little on his face, toning it down, and Coretta smiled. It was working. And, she said, “open the door and let ‘em in.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q316490 funeral director]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q316490 funeral director]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/clayton#00:38:39 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="clayton#00:38:39" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/clayton#00:38:39 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="clayton#00:38:39" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
Martin Luther King chose the best person possible as a wife, and her stamina gave the country and the world relief, because everybody were just crashing over this man’s untimely death. A man who lived for and died for goodness now ends up like this.
 
Martin Luther King chose the best person possible as a wife, and her stamina gave the country and the world relief, because everybody were just crashing over this man’s untimely death. A man who lived for and died for goodness now ends up like this.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1196129 spouse]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q188830 wife]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1196129 spouse]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q188830 wife]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span>
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Through their tears, Mama King said to me, “I want you to know that when the tension of the moment, you know, tapers a little bit, I can tell you fully how much I appreciate what you did.” And I said, “What did I do?”
 
Through their tears, Mama King said to me, “I want you to know that when the tension of the moment, you know, tapers a little bit, I can tell you fully how much I appreciate what you did.” And I said, “What did I do?”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1110336 Alberta Williams King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1110336 Alberta Williams King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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She said, “Well, you told Martin what I said, that I wanted him to spend more time with me.” She said, “He called me.” And she thinks that she was one of the last persons he talked to, and she said, “I know I’m gonna feel good about that one of these days.”
 
She said, “Well, you told Martin what I said, that I wanted him to spend more time with me.” She said, “He called me.” And she thinks that she was one of the last persons he talked to, and she said, “I know I’m gonna feel good about that one of these days.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1110336 Alberta Williams King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1110336 Alberta Williams King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/jones#02:16:29 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="jones#02:16:29" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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I got a call that Mrs. Kennedy would like very much to pay her respects to Mrs. King. It was the date of the funeral, and Mrs. Kennedy walks over to Mrs. King. The now two widows embrace and they hold one another.
 
I got a call that Mrs. Kennedy would like very much to pay her respects to Mrs. King. It was the date of the funeral, and Mrs. Kennedy walks over to Mrs. King. The now two widows embrace and they hold one another.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q165421 Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q179115 widow]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q2296401 telephone call]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q165421 Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q230969 Coretta Scott King]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q179115 widow]</span>
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I was on my way to the funeral, and I had to pass the office, and the office door was open, our SCLC office, and people were bringing things outta there.
 
I was on my way to the funeral, and I had to pass the office, and the office door was open, our SCLC office, and people were bringing things outta there.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q192623 looting]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q605130 Southern Christian Leadership Conference]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q192623 looting]</span>
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I went across the street over there, and sure enough, it was a test of our nonviolence. These people were taking things off the wall, and off the desk, and everything else. And I had to calm them down, ‘cause they were frantic, and they were wailing, and moanin’ and groanin’.
 
I went across the street over there, and sure enough, it was a test of our nonviolence. These people were taking things off the wall, and off the desk, and everything else. And I had to calm them down, ‘cause they were frantic, and they were wailing, and moanin’ and groanin’.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q192623 looting]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q192623 looting]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
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So, they were not like thieves, they were people who had felt they had lost Martin Luther King, and they were just trying to find something they could hold on to that Martin Luther King, perhaps, had touched.
 
So, they were not like thieves, they were people who had felt they had lost Martin Luther King, and they were just trying to find something they could hold on to that Martin Luther King, perhaps, had touched.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q20888800 loss]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q20888800 loss]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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But I missed the funeral. I got there in time to see Robert Kennedy and some others come out of the church, but the wagon had, okay, gone off.
 
But I missed the funeral. I got there in time to see Robert Kennedy and some others come out of the church, but the wagon had, okay, gone off.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25310 Robert F. Kennedy]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5509127 Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q25310 Robert F. Kennedy]</span>
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There has been a lot of historical tragedies that give us time to reflect on much that has been lost to us and the cruelty of the issues of race.
 
There has been a lot of historical tragedies that give us time to reflect on much that has been lost to us and the cruelty of the issues of race.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q309 history]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7832608 tragedy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3254959 race]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q309 history]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q7832608 tragedy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q3254959 race]</span>
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None more profoundly robbed me of an important part of what I thought my life would be than when Martin was murdered. His death was not just a great loss historically, but in a deep personal sense, I lost a friend.
 
None more profoundly robbed me of an important part of what I thought my life would be than when Martin was murdered. His death was not just a great loss historically, but in a deep personal sense, I lost a friend.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q20888800 loss]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q309 history]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17297777 friend]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q214959 Harry Belafonte]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q20888800 loss]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q309 history]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q17297777 friend]</span>
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My first reaction was to be mad with him. You got us in all this hell, now you’re going to heaven and leaving us in hell. (chuckles) Why don’t you take us with you? But I, I was panicked to know how we followed, and it, well, we were not able to stay together without him, and the movement began to fragment.
 
My first reaction was to be mad with him. You got us in all this hell, now you’re going to heaven and leaving us in hell. (chuckles) Why don’t you take us with you? But I, I was panicked to know how we followed, and it, well, we were not able to stay together without him, and the movement began to fragment.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q757963 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q48537 Civil Rights Movement]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//labs.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/lafayette#01:05:55 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="lafayette#01:05:55" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
 
What has happened in the past has been our lives. As older people, we’ve gone through those different periods, and we have suffered, and we have also made some progress. But this is what our lives were about.
 
What has happened in the past has been our lives. As older people, we’ve gone through those different periods, and we have suffered, and we have also made some progress. But this is what our lives were about.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q332154 aging]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q332154 aging]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q9415 emotion]</span>
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The question is the next generation, cause it’s not what you’ve gained, it’s what you can maintain. Martin Luther King went to the blackboard and taught us nonviolence, but nonviolence is not confined to any historical period.
 
The question is the next generation, cause it’s not what you’ve gained, it’s what you can maintain. Martin Luther King went to the blackboard and taught us nonviolence, but nonviolence is not confined to any historical period.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q213381 generation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q4893345 Bernard Lafayette]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q213381 generation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
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He speaks to this generation clearly, as if he’s in yesterday’s morning paper. His strategies, his philosophy, his worldview remain real today.
 
He speaks to this generation clearly, as if he’s in yesterday’s morning paper. His strategies, his philosophy, his worldview remain real today.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q213381 generation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q628523 message]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q185451 strategy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30046560 philosophical viewpoint]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q310586 Jesse Jackson]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q213381 generation]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q628523 message]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q185451 strategy]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30046560 philosophical viewpoint]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/vivian#01:35:34 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="vivian#01:35:34" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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He wanted a future world that was changed because of our nonviolent struggles. He wanted his life to be remembered by making the nation realize that nonviolence is what we must in the end have.
 
He wanted a future world that was changed because of our nonviolent struggles. He wanted his life to be remembered by making the nation realize that nonviolence is what we must in the end have.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q344 future]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5006890 C. T. Vivian]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q344 future]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q76611 nonviolence]</span>
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I think people discovered only after his death that he was more radical than they actually knew. I don’t think he wanted us to take anything other than all that we deserve, and that’s what radicalism in the best sense is about. Using the power that you have to help transform the society for the better.
 
I think people discovered only after his death that he was more radical than they actually knew. I don’t think he wanted us to take anything other than all that we deserve, and that’s what radicalism in the best sense is about. Using the power that you have to help transform the society for the better.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1101295 Clifford Alexander, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q14850797 political radicalism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8425 society]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1101295 Clifford Alexander, Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q14850797 political radicalism]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8425 society]</span>
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<span class="plainlinks">[//www.jstor.org/interview/mlk/interview/nash#00:55:24 <img class="interview-ref" data-xref="nash#00:55:24" src="https://d3taya9v9ihy04.cloudfront.net/kitw/link.png">]</span>
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With Martin Luther King, we have the holiday, and we talk about how wonderful he was, but we really should develop his work. It’s our responsibility, everybody’s responsibility. There are three hundred million of us and social change is the job of each of us.
 
With Martin Luther King, we have the holiday, and we talk about how wonderful he was, but we really should develop his work. It’s our responsibility, everybody’s responsibility. There are three hundred million of us and social change is the job of each of us.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5271535 Diane Nash]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q75138 Carl Robert]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1510761 social change]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5271535 Diane Nash]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q75138 Carl Robert]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1510761 social change]</span>
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When you see something that is not right, not fair, not just, you have a moral obligation and a mandate to do something, to say something, to speak up, to speak out.
 
When you see something that is not right, not fair, not just, you have a moral obligation and a mandate to do something, to say something, to speak up, to speak out.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1510761 social change]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q45380 John Lewis]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1510761 social change]</span>
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He is issuing as much of a call to us today as he was calling to us in 1968, and I hope we will hear that call and finish the next face phase of his movement. He talked about the importance of keep going forward. He said, “If you can’t fly, you drive. If you can’t drive, you run. If you can’t run, you walk. If you can’t walk, you crawl—but keep moving forward.”
 
He is issuing as much of a call to us today as he was calling to us in 1968, and I hope we will hear that call and finish the next face phase of his movement. He talked about the importance of keep going forward. He said, “If you can’t fly, you drive. If you can’t drive, you run. If you can’t run, you walk. If you can’t walk, you crawl—but keep moving forward.”
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30046560 philosophical viewpoint]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q1896700 Marian Wright Edelman]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30046560 philosophical viewpoint]</span>
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From 1956 until April 4th, 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. may have done more to achieve political, social, economic justice than any other person in the journey of American history.
 
From 1956 until April 4th, 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. may have done more to achieve political, social, economic justice than any other person in the journey of American history.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q309 history]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30 United States of America]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5167661 justice]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q264892 social justice]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5126400 Clarence Benjamin Jones]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q309 history]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q30 United States of America]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5167661 justice]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q264892 social justice]</span>
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The problems we have that Martin lived for are still with us, and the complexity of good and evil in this world is gonna always be with us. I don’t know that anybody struggled with it any more or did any better than Martin King in my lifetime. He always said, we’ve come a long, long way, but we still got a long way to go. And somewhere, wherever Martin is, he’s struggling beyond this place in time and space.
 
The problems we have that Martin lived for are still with us, and the complexity of good and evil in this world is gonna always be with us. I don’t know that anybody struggled with it any more or did any better than Martin King in my lifetime. He always said, we’ve come a long, long way, but we still got a long way to go. And somewhere, wherever Martin is, he’s struggling beyond this place in time and space.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q959635 Andrew Young]</span> <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q8027 Martin Luther King Jr.]</span>
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I’m, I’m gonna do what the spirit says do. I’m gonna do what the spirit says do, what the spirit says do, I’m gonna do, oh Lord, do what the spirit says do. We used to sing, I’ll go to jail if the spirit says jail, I’ll go to jail if the spirit says jail, if the spirit says jail, I’ll go to jail, oh Lord, I’ll go to jail if the spirit says jail.
 
I’m, I’m gonna do what the spirit says do. I’m gonna do what the spirit says do, what the spirit says do, I’m gonna do, oh Lord, do what the spirit says do. We used to sing, I’ll go to jail if the spirit says jail, I’ll go to jail if the spirit says jail, if the spirit says jail, I’ll go to jail, oh Lord, I’ll go to jail if the spirit says jail.
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span>
 
  <span class="plainlinks">[https://labs-wiki.jstor.org/entity/Q5298360 Dorothy Cotton]</span>

Latest revision as of 15:59, 16 February 2021


00:00:59

Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON:

:  I came over in the morning to pick Martin up to drive him to the airport to go to Memphis. The children saw him going to the airport all the time. But this day, the boys blocked the door and said “Daddy, don’t leave.” And he said, “Oh I’ll be right back. I’m just going down to Memphis! I’ll be back.”

Xernona Clayton Martin Luther King Jr. Memphis airport

00:01:28

Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON:

:  Then they ran ahead of him and blocked the stairs, and said, “Daddy, don’t leave us.” And he said, “Listen, I’m coming right back. I’m just gonna go down there for a march. You know I explained why I’m going. These people have been mistreated in Memphis and I’m going to do something about it. That’s my work and you know that.”

Xernona Clayton Martin Luther King Jr. Memphis Sanitation Strike

00:01:55

Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON:

:  They ran over to my car, and then they jumped on the hood of the car, pleading again through the window, “Daddy, please don’t go. Daddy, please don’t leave us. Daddy, please!”

Xernona Clayton Martin Luther King Jr. child

00:02:06

Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON:

:  (music sound up) Such pleading.

00:02:13

Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON:

:  We backed out of the driveway and got on the way. And he said, “What in the world happened to these kids? They must be trying to tell me that they’re missing me more. And when I come back, I’ve gotta change my habits. I can’t go through this.”

Xernona Clayton Martin Luther King Jr.

00:02:44

Speaker: HARRY BELAFONTE:

:  I watched the transformation take place from the man that I met in the first instance to the man he became in the end. With all of his experience, he really was not quite ready for the human heart to reveal as much villainy. What he saw was more hate than he saw resolve.

Harry Belafonte Martin Luther King Jr. hatred

00:03:10

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  We were trying to redeem the soul of America from the triple evils of racism, war, and poverty, and Martin had become far more exposed to enemies by taking on both civil rights and the war issue.

Andrew Young Martin Luther King Jr. enemy

00:03:28

Speaker: JOAN BAEZ:

:  I couldn’t imagine the pressure that was on him—nobody could. None of us could imagine that. It was just too overwhelming.

Joan Baez Martin Luther King Jr. stressor

00:03:41

Speaker: CLARENCE JONES:

:  The most difficult time of his life was the 18 months before his assassination. Very difficult time.

Clarence Benjamin Jones Martin Luther King Jr. stressor

00:03:53

Speaker: RALPH ABERNATHY:

: 

The Moses of nineteen hundred and sixty-eight, Martin Luther King. (cheers and applause)

Ralph Abernathy Martin Luther King Jr.

00:04:02

Speaker: BERNARD LAFAYETTE:

:  He was disappointed, and he wondered whether or not he could do any more than he’d done.

Bernard Lafayette Martin Luther King Jr. disappointment

00:04:11

Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON:

:  It had bothered him deeply that the nation had turned against him and I always tell people he died of a broken heart.

Xernona Clayton Martin Luther King Jr. emotion

00:04:23

Speaker: C. T. VIVIAN:

:  I think he worried about dying before he had accomplished enough. It’s as though he knew that he was not going to be here for the rest of the struggle.

C. T. Vivian Martin Luther King Jr. Civil Rights Movement

00:04:36

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

We’ve got some difficult days ahead.

Martin Luther King Jr.

00:04:39

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  The movement ceased to be political for him—it was spiritual.

Andrew Young Martin Luther King Jr. Civil Rights Movement spirituality

00:04:43

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

But it really doesn’t matter with me now.

Martin Luther King Jr.

00:04:45

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  He said, ‘We have wondered in the wilderness of separate but equal, and we’re about to move into the promised land of creative integration, and I don’t know whether I’ll get there, but my people will get to the promised land.

Andrew Young Martin Luther King Jr. I've Been to the Mountaintop

00:05:01

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

: 

(Overlapping with Martin Luther King’s “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” speech) ...Get to the promise land! (few seconds of applause)

00:05:02

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord!’

00:05:14

Speaker: CLARENCE JONES:

:  I’m 86, and you know, there’s an African proverb that says, “If the surviving lions don’t tell their stories, the hunters will get all the credit.”

Clarence Benjamin Jones African proverbs

00:05:26

Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON:

:  I tell the story of Martin Luther King and Coretta King as I knew it. I lived it. I value all of what they gave me now that I can remember.

Xernona Clayton Martin Luther King Jr. Coretta Scott King

00:05:42

Speaker: XERNONA CLAYTON:

:  I’m not just telling stories. I’m not making a speech. I’m telling you what happened.

Xernona Clayton

00:06:10

Speaker: FILM CREW:

: 

Speed. Civil Rights, King, Vanocur, roll 20, sound 36.

00:06:20

Speaker: SANDER VANOCUR:

: 

Dr. King, this church is as good a place as any to go back over your commitment to the Civil Rights Movement.

Sander Vanocur Civil Rights Movement Ebenezer Baptist Church

00:06:30

Speaker: SANDER VANOCUR:

: 

When you went to Montgomery, Alabama and started the Bus Boycotts there, what was the philosophy of the Civil Rights movement as you saw it then, more than ten years ago?

Montgomery Montgomery Bus Boycott

00:06:42

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

Well, I would say, then, the philosophy was that we must go all out to use legal and nonviolent methods to gain full citizenship rights for the negro people of our country. And that particular struggle centered on breaking down all of the barriers of legal segregation.

Martin Luther King Jr. nonviolence Racial segregation in the United States

00:07:06

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

That period was a great period of hope for me, and I’m sure for many others… Many of the negroes who had about lost hope saw a solid decade of progress in the South.

Martin Luther King Jr. hope Southern United States

00:07:20

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

And I think we are in a new era, a new phase of the struggle, where we have moved from a struggle for decency, which characterized our struggle for ten or twelve years, to a struggle for genuine equality, because there are three evils in our nation; it’s not only racism, but economic exploitation of poverty would be one, and then militarism.

Martin Luther King Jr. Civil Rights Movement racism poverty militarism

00:07:43

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

And I think, in a sense, and in a very real sense, these three are tied inextricably together, and we aren’t gonna get rid of one without getting rid of the other.

Martin Luther King Jr.

00:07:52

Speaker: SANDER VANOCUR:

: 

When you stood in that August day in 1963 on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, (Clapping from overlaid clip) and you said, “I had a dream,” did that dream envision a war in Asia, and in the ghettos of the North?

Lincoln Memorial I Have a Dream

00:08:10

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

No, I didn’t envision that then. In 1963, to be in the March on Washington, it meant a great deal; it was a high moment, a great watershed moment.

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

00:08:22

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

But I must confess that that dream that I had that day has in many points turned into a nightmare.

nightmare

00:08:44

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  We were all caught off guard when we saw the rebellions begin. They started in Harlem and then Philadelphia in 1964, and then Watts in 1965, which was the most massive.

Cleveland Sellers The sixties riot Harlem Philadelphia Watts riots

00:09:03

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  Martin called me early in the morning saying that, “There’s a riot in Watts. We’ve gotta go to Los Angeles.”

Andrew Young Martin Luther King Jr. Watts riots

00:09:23

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

Thank you very much my dear friends of Los Angeles and the Watts area of this city—

00:09:32

Speaker: WOMAN IN CROWD:

: 

—Quiet!

00:09:34

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

Now I live approximately 2,500 miles from here. I’m not free there and our brothers and sisters are not free there, and you are not free in California and in the North (loud cheers).

00:09:54

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

I’ve said all over America, and I come out to Watts to tell ya today, no matter what color you are, you are somebody! (cheers in agreement) And all over the United States of America, the negro must join hands—

00:10:18

Speaker: MAN IN CROWD:

: 

And burn!

00:10:19

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

—and we must work.

00:10:21

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

(crowd laughs)

00:10:28

Speaker: JOHN LEWIS:

:  Dr. King once said that, “The riot became the language of the unheard.”

John Lewis riot

00:10:36

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

You all know my philosophy; you all know that I believe firmly in nonviolence. Or maybe some of you don’t quite agree with this. I want you to–

nonviolence

00:10:43

Speaker: JOHN LEWIS:

:  Nonviolent is more than a tactic. It is one of those immutable principles that you cannot deviate from if you’re going to be able to redeem the soul of America.

John Lewis nonviolence

00:10:55

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  The issues in Watts, and in the North, were far more complex than black and white, as they had been in the South. Q959635 Q1687279 [the north] Q49042 He was dealing with racism, but he was dealing with racism that was complicated by unemployment and unprepared migrants moving from the South to the North. And I realized we were in a different movement.

Andrew Young racism unemployment Great Migration

00:11:19

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  What we saw it as… a lot of people who were suffering from the same kind of poverty, the same kind of absence of employment opportunities, and police brutality were in the urban areas, and they responded with whatever weapons they could find.

Cleveland Sellers poverty police brutality

00:11:39

Speaker: JOSEPH CALIFANO:

:  The president during the riots was just depressed. About a week before, Johnson had signed the Voting Rights Act— tells me, “this is the most important piece of legislation I’ll pass. Even more important than the ’64 Civil Rights Act.”

Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Lyndon B. Johnson Wallace Ford Voting Rights Act of 1965 civil and political rights

00:11:57

Speaker: JOSEPH CALIFANO:

:  He’s virtually carried out of the room on shoulders, and then, we start the massive rioting in Watts. So he tells me, “Call Dr. King.”

Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Lyndon B. Johnson Watts riots

00:12:08

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. (Phone call):

: 

Hello?

Martin Luther King Jr.

00:12:09

Speaker: LYNDON B. JOHNSON:

: 

Yes, Dr. King.

Lyndon B. Johnson

00:12:10

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

Yes, we‘re expecting a difficult situation here.

Martin Luther King Jr. Watts riots

00:12:14

Speaker: LYNDON B. JOHNSON:

: 

How do you see it?

Lyndon B. Johnson

00:12:16

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

Well, I’ll tell ya, Mr. President, I have met with people in the Watts area. I’m fearful that if something isn’t done to give a new sense of hope to the people in that area, that a full-scale race war can develop here.

Watts race Race war

00:12:33

Speaker: LYNDON B. JOHNSON:

: 

I’ve spent the biggest part of my life for the last four years on civil rights bills, but all of it comes to naught if you have a situation like war in the world or a situation in Los Angeles.

civil and political rights legislation war riot

00:12:45

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

Yes.

00:12:46

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  All of this was happening about the same time that the war in Vietnam heated up, and the President was in the midst of a very heavy burden both with the war and domestically.

Andrew Young Vietnam War Lyndon B. Johnson

00:13:00

Speaker: LYNDON JOHNSON (Phone call):

: 

I want peace as much as you do, and more so, ‘cause I’m the fellow that had to wake up with morning with 50 Marines killed.

Vietnam War peace United States Marine Corps

00:13:07

Speaker: LYNDON JOHNSON (Phone call):

: 

But these folks, they all got the impression, too, that you’re against me in Vietnam.

Vietnam War anti-war movement

00:13:11

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

And I have said this, Mr. President. I am concerned about peace.

Vietnam War peace

00:13:16

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  Dr. King made the decision in ’65 that he had to be against the war.

Andrew Young 1965 Martin Luther King Jr.

00:13:23

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  We went to meet with Ambassador Goldberg at the United Nations. And Goldberg pretty much agreed with us that the war in Vietnam was not in anybody’s interest. But the press said that he had no business having an opinion about foreign affairs. He was a civil rights leader, see. And it hurt him.

Andrew Young Arthur Goldberg anti-war movement Martin Luther King Jr. Vietnam War

00:13:47

Speaker: C. T. VIVIAN:

:  He said to me, he said “Vivian, you don’t think I know what I’m talking about do you?” But he knew how he felt about the war.

C. T. Vivian Martin Luther King Jr. Vietnam War

00:13:58

Speaker: C. T. VIVIAN:

:  Also, I think Martin knew that he had to be a part of the North sooner or later.

C. T. Vivian

00:14:05

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

One must understand that the civil rights legislation that we have had over the last few years, even the voting bill—rights bill—which came the other day didn’t do too much to improve the lot of the thousands and millions of negroes in teeming ghettoes of the north.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 ghetto

00:14:26

Speaker: DIANE NASH:

:  I opposed SCLC moving North because we weren’t finished in the South. We needed to continue political education.

Diane Nash Southern Christian Leadership Conference

00:14:43

Speaker: DIANE NASH:

:  And we needed to work on building an economic base.

Diane Nash economics

00:14:49

Speaker: DOROTHY COTTON:

:  Martin could sit there for an hour, listen to us argue about, “no—let’s go here. Let’s go there. Let’s teach this, let’s d—whatever.”

Dorothy Cotton Martin Luther King Jr. Listening

00:14:58

Speaker: DOROTHY COTTON:

:  But he would teach a lot by asking questions. Then a sudden quiet would come over the room because he wanted to make people think about what they wanted. Martin could be very quiet and have all the power in the room.

Dorothy Cotton leadership

00:15:18

Speaker: HARRY BELAFONTE:

:  Martin had decided that we had to prove that nonviolence was relevant in the North. That we had to find a way to get into these northern cities before the riots occurred. And so, we went North, to Chicago. I do not know that everything that Martin said or did he was quite prepared for. He had felt that in many ways, dealing with the South was a more predictable outcome, because in the North, the racial hypocrisy was very subverted.

Harry Belafonte Martin Luther King Jr. Southern United States hypocrisy

00:16:12

Speaker: HARRY BELAFONTE:

:  It gave the appearance of being not like the South; the South was the center of all evil, and that the North was a place of the higher experience. And Dr. King said, “No, that’s not the case.”

Harry Belafonte Southern United States

00:16:31

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

: 

We moved into an apartment on 16th and Hamlin. It was a walk-up apartment, with no lights, no heat, and… it took quite an adjustment. I never got scared in the South. (Cops cheering)

Andrew Young Chicago

00:16:53

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

: 

I knew the dangers, and I was prepared to get killed in the South, but I wasn’t ready to, you know, to have a junkie stick a knife in me in the middle of the night, coming into that apartment for maybe fifteen or twenty dollars that I had in my pocket.

Andrew Young danger

00:17:15

Speaker: MARY LOU FINLEY:

:  That first night was a very cold night, and I got really worried that there weren’t gonna be enough blankets, so we went and got the blankets, and went over to see Dr. King in his apartment. And, as we were sitting there, the doorbell rang, and there was a young man there. The first thing he said when he came in the door was, “Are you really Martin Luther King?”

Chicago cold

00:17:37

Speaker: MARY LOU FINLEY:

:  They had a very lovely conversation with Dr. King really saying, “We want you to join the movement.” Pretty soon later, there was another knock on the door, and there was like a whole train of them going down the stairs. And those young men came back a number of times to see Dr. King.

Martin Luther King Jr. neighbor Civil Rights Movement

00:18:00

Speaker: BERNARD LAFAYETTE:

:  People in the community, they would just hang around waiting for him to come downstairs, you know, so they could see him. But he would invite them in, sit down and talk to people. They didn’t think he was the kind of person he could talk to and it made them feel, well honestly, that they were worthwhile as well.

Bernard Lafayette Martin Luther King Jr. Cicero neighbor conversation

00:18:25

Speaker: C. T. VIVIAN:

:  Martin understood that if you ran with folk, you could organize folk. Remember, we’ve spent all of our lives being hated in one form or the other. But when we see somebody who really cares for people—people, period—right, that person is worth knowing.

C. T. Vivian Martin Luther King Jr. community organizing

00:18:58

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  The first week we moved in, temperature dropped to about sixteen degrees below zero. And people came to us to complain that they had no heat. And, to find babies wrapped in newspaper, we had to start—fire the furnaces. So we got all the money we could and we got enough coal and to get all of the furnaces to work.

Andrew Young Chicago cold heating furnace

00:19:27

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  We called the movement in Chicago the movement to end slums. And It plunged us into several issues. One was the area of poor housing. The other was the area of quality education, and also unemployment.

Andrew Young Chicago Freedom Movement

00:19:46

Speaker: REVEREND MITCHELL:

: 

I feel like we know more about our problem than Dr. King because we live here.

00:19:50

Speaker: PRESS:

: 

What would you suggest that he do, Reverend Mitchell?

00:19:52

Speaker: REVEREND MITCHELL:

: 

I would suggest when it comes down to our city, he should get the hell out of here.

00:19:59

Speaker: JESSE JACKSON:

:  So first we ran into stiff black resistance. We had never met that in Montgomery or Birmingham or Selma before, that was different.

Jesse Jackson resistance movement

00:20:09

Speaker: BERNARD LAFAYETTE:

:  A lot of the ministers were part of the patronage system. Mayor Daley’s patronage system was one where people’s jobs were handed out based on the number of votes that they could produce. They called it the Daley Machine.

Bernard Lafayette Richard J. Daley Political machine

00:20:25

Speaker: DIANE NASH:

:  Martin had anxiety, because, as he put it, “We don’t want to flunk. (laughs) We don’t want to fail in our projects.”

Diane Nash Martin Luther King Jr. anxiety

00:20:38

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  We met regularly with Mayor Daley, and we disagreed, because we were challenging the way Chicago was structured.

Andrew Young Richard J. Daley Chicago

00:20:48

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG (Archival):

: 

I think we’re beginning to crystalize some of the problems and understand what we might do to begin to make some changes.

Andrew Young

00:20:56

Speaker: REPORTER:

: 

Does it mean demonstrations, too, possibly?

00:20:58

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG (Archival):

: 

Yes, it would mean demonstrations, but I think just when it would mean demonstrations, we wouldn’t be able to say.

Andrew Young demonstration

00:21:10

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG (Archival):

:  At the same time, we were still being pulled back to the South, and James Meredith decided to have a march in Mississippi.

Andrew Young James Meredith March Against Fear

00:21:22

Speaker: NEWSCASTER:

: 

When James Meredith, a negro who desegregated the University of Mississippi, started the march only three friends walked with him.

March Against Fear

00:21:29

Speaker: JAMES MEREDITH:

: 

The surest way to power is through the vote. And it is for this reason that I have decided to use all of my spare time trying to encourage negroes to register and vote, and that is the purpose of this march today.

James Meredith voter registration

00:21:46

Speaker: MARIAN WRIGHT EDELMAN:

:  Mississippi wanted black folk to leave. They didn’t want them to be there to vote. They were trying to starve them out. They were pushing people off the land and wanted them to go North. And the violence continued.

Marian Wright Edelman Mississippi Voting rights in the United States violence

00:21:59

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  James Meredith’s march was a march against fear. We had seen people in Mississippi getting killed for trying to register to vote because they didn’t want them to have power. So he was trying to empower African Americans to not be fearful of all the threats.

Cleveland Sellers James Meredith March Against Fear

00:22:17

Speaker: NEWSCASTER 2:

: 

“If I can walk through Mississippi without harm,” Meredith told reporters, “Other negroes will see that they can too.”

00:22:23

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  At that time, me and Stokely Carmichael were officers of SNCC, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. And someone came along and told us that James Meredith had been shot.

Cleveland Sellers Stokely Carmichael Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

00:22:36

Speaker: JAMES MEREDITH:

: 

I’m hit in the leg, and in the head. Ain’t nobody (tires screeching) gonna get me in a car.

00:22:41

Speaker: MAN:

: 

Here it comes right now Jimmy.

00:22:43

Speaker: MARIAN WRIGHT EDELMAN:

:  The Meredith March wasn’t on anybody’s agenda. He didn’t consult with anybody. But with the shooting of Meredith, Dr. King and civil rights leaders rallied around that.

Marian Wright Edelman March Against Fear Martin Luther King Jr.

00:22:53

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

This march that we are continuing, started by James Meredith, I am convinced will have as great an impact, or probably a greater impact than the march from Selma to Montgomery.

Selma to Montgomery marches

00:23:08

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

If a man can still be shot down on the highways in Mississippi peacefully walking, that march needs to be big.

Stokely Carmichael

00:23:14

Speaker: REPORTER:

: 

Thank you very much, gentlemen.

00:23:17

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  Martin felt we could not ignore what was happening in Mississippi. So, we had to divide what we were doing in, in Chicago, and so we had a Mississippi March and a Chicago Movement.

Andrew Young Martin Luther King Jr. March Against Fear Chicago Freedom Movement

00:23:36

Speaker: WHITE BOYS:

: 

(Playing “Dixie” on Clarinet) Where’s Meredith? Go home! (Inaudible) fucking tootsie roll! (screaming and yelling) Nigger go home! Where’s Meredith?

Dixie

00:23:51

Speaker: REPORTER:

: 

From the moment that the civil rights leaders rushed in to continue James Meredith’s march, there has been a struggle to see whose philosophy would guide the steps. The philosophical struggle deepened as the march column moved deeper into Mississippi.

00:24:04

Speaker: REPORTER:

: 

The voice of Stokely Carmichael, young leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, spoke louder and louder. At Greenwood, he sounded the marches new rallying call.

00:24:13

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

…faggot—It’s time we stand up and take over (crowd cheers). We want Black Power.

Stokely Carmichael Black Power

00:24:16

Speaker: CROWD:

: 

Black Power!

00:24:17

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

We want Black Power.

00:24:19

Speaker: CROWD:

: 

Black Power!

00:24:19

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

We want Black Power.

00:24:21

Speaker: CROWD:

: 

Black Power!

00:24:21

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

We want Black Power.

00:24:23

Speaker: CROWD:

: 

Black Power!

00:24:23

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  In SNCC, we saw a changing movement tactically.

Cleveland Sellers Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

00:24:28

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

We want Black Power! (crowd cheers)

00:24:29

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  Our focus was on empowering communities.

Cleveland Sellers community

00:24:33

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

We don’t have to be ashamed of it.

00:24:34

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

: 

Not only politically, but in terms of culture and identity.

Cleveland Sellers empowerment

00:24:38

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

What do you want? (crowd: “Black Power!”) That’s what we gonna get.

00:24:41

Speaker: BERNARD LAFAYETTE:

:  What they were basically saying is that black people needed to appreciate black and it wasn’t a color, it was a culture. Now, when I was growing up, to call a person of color black was considered derogatory. Those were fighting words. But, there was a term that was used as well during that period: “white power.”

Bernard Lafayette Black Power movement

00:25:08

Speaker: CLARENCE JONES:

:  Stokely Carmichael gets control of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and he purges the organization of all white people.

Clarence Benjamin Jones

00:25:15

Speaker: CLARENCE JONES:

:  He said, “You go back and work in your community. We want to have total control. It rippled throughout the movement.

Clarence Benjamin Jones Stokely Carmichael Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

00:25:25

Speaker: MARIAN WRIGHT EDELMAN:

:  I will never forget Dr. King’s face when Black Power first began to emerge. He looked like the most stricken man.

Marian Wright Edelman Martin Luther King Jr. Black Power movement

00:25:33

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

We must never forget that there are some white people in the United States just as determined to see us free as we are to be free ourselves.

00:25:44

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  We were taught that there were good people and bad people and we never viewed this as black against white.

Andrew Young African Americans White people

00:25:51

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  We’re taught that racism was a sickness and you don’t get mad with sick people. They just don’t know any better. They’d been taught that they are better than you.

Andrew Young racism

00:26:02

Speaker: FRANK MCGEE:

: 

What do you mean when you shout “Black Power” to these people back here?

Frank McGee

00:26:06

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

I mean that they are oppressed because they are black, and their rallying cry must be “Black Power” so that they can use that to ensure justice for themselves–

oppression

00:26:16

Speaker: CLARENCE JONES:

:  Martin was very uncomfortable, but he knows that he has to be there to support the courage of Stokely Carmichael without supporting the message, or the form of the message.

Clarence Benjamin Jones Martin Luther King Jr. Stokely Carmichael

00:26:30

Speaker: CLARENCE JONES:

:  Dr. King was not opposed to power, but to elevate so-called Black Power over white power would break that which he was seeking to build—the coalition among white and black people.

Clarence Benjamin Jones coalition

00:26:44

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

I feel that while believing firmly that power is necessary, that it would be difficult for me to use the phrase “Black Power” because of the connotative meaning that it has for many people, and the feeling that this may represent our desire to rise from a position of disadvantage to one of advantage, thereby subverting justice. On the other hand—

power justice

00:27:13

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  Some of the people on the march were intimidated by the whole effort of Black Power.

Cleveland Sellers March Against Fear Black Power movement

00:27:18

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

They must ask themselves why they are afraid of the word “black” and why they are afraid of the phrase “black power.”

Black Power

00:27:24

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  As long as we were talking about non-violence and all that kind of thing, everybody felt comfortable.

Cleveland Sellers nonviolence

00:27:29

Speaker: REPORTER:

: 

Do you think they’re really afraid of it or just feel that it’s not a good…

00:27:32

Speaker: CLEVELAND SELLERS:

:  Anytime when we talk about black people having power the assumption is that black people want to be violent against white people.

Cleveland Sellers African Americans power

00:27:40

Speaker: REPORTER:

: 

Mr. Carmichael, are you as committed to the nonviolent approach as Dr. King is?

Stokely Carmichael nonviolence

00:27:44

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

No, I’m not.

00:27:45

Speaker: REPORTER:

: 

Why aren’t you?

00:27:45

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

Well, I just don’t see it as a way of life. I never have. I grew up in the slums of New York and I learned there that the only way that one survived was to use his fists. I realized the reality –

slum New York City

00:27:55

Speaker: BERNARD LAFAYETTE:

:  When Stokely became chairman of SNCC, he had a different approach.

Bernard Lafayette Stokely Carmichael Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

00:28:01

Speaker: STOKELY CARMICHAEL:

: 

For me, it’s always been a tactic and never a way of life.

principle

00:28:01

Speaker: BERNARD LAFAYETTE:

:  He believed in self-defense.

Bernard Lafayette philosophical viewpoint

00:28:05

Speaker: REPORTER:

: 

Could you comment on that Dr. King?

00:28:07

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.:

: 

The negro has an opportunity to inject morality in the veins of our civilization and for this reason I will continue to preach non-violence, I will to continue to –

morality nonviolence

00:28:20

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  Martin was an amazingly tolerant, understanding father-figure for all of us. He understood Stokely’s frustrations, and he never took it personally.

Andrew Young Martin Luther King Jr. leadership

00:28:33

Speaker: ANDREW YOUNG:

:  I think Dr. King never forgot that we were all on the same side. He didn’t have any enemies.

Andrew Young Martin Luther King Jr.

00:28:41

Speaker: MARIAN WRIGHT EDELMAN:

:  What I remember was the listening, the patience. He was always there to say, “I don’t go there, but I want to really understand why you go there.” But that was the first real breach in the nonviolence commitment that many of us had grown to accept.

Marian Wright Edelman Martin Luther King Jr. Listening patience

00:29:00

Speaker: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.: