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The illegitimate daughter of Magwitch and a murderess, Estella has been brought up by Miss Havisham to wreak revenge on men. Beautiful and apparently without feeling, she warns Pip that she has no sense of what a ‘heart’ is in the sense that he uses the word. In the original ending she marries the doctor who has attended her during her abusive marriage to Bentley Drummle, an experience that finally reveals her ability to feel through her capacity for mental suffering. On the advice of Edward Bulwer Lytton Dickens revised this ending so that Pip ‘saw no shadow of another parting from her’.